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Chapter 18 peripheral nervous system - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Nervous system. Chapter 18 peripheral nervous system. The Spinal Nerves The Cranial Nerves The Autonomic Nervous System motor nerve visceral sensory nerve referred pain the innervation of some important organs. The Autonomic Nervous System . central part

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Nervous system

Chapter 18 peripheral nervous system

  • The Spinal Nerves

  • The Cranial Nerves

  • The Autonomic Nervous System

  • motor nerve

  • visceral sensory nerve

  • referred pain

  • the innervation of some important organs

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The Autonomic Nervous System

central part



Distribute on internal organs, blood vessels,smooth muscle and glands。

sympathetic nerve

Visceral motor nerve

parasympathetic nerve


Visceral sensory nerve

Visceral motor nerveis also called autonomic nervous system or vegetative nervous system.

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The composition of autonomic nervous system can be summarized as following:


Visceral nervous


Spinal cord

Brain stem

central part



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Sympathetic nerve summarized as following


motor nerve

Cranium part




pars sacralis


sensory nerve

Spinal ganglion

cerebral ganglion

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Visceral motor nerve summarized as following

The differentiation between visceral motor nerve and somatic motor nerve:

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The visceral motor nerve can be divided into sympathetic nerve and parasympathetic nerve.

sympathetic nerve

The general view of sympathetic nerve

sympathetic nerve

lower centra:the T1~L3

intermediolateral nucleus

paravertebral ganglia

(ganglia of sympathetic trunk)

interganglionic branches

cervical part 3-4 ones

thoracic part 10-12 ones

pars lumbalis 4 ones

pars sacralis 2-3 ones

the two sides of pars terminalis

synthetize an odd knob

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prevertebral ganglia nerve and parasympathetic nerve.

celiac ganglia

superior mesenteric ganglion

inferior mesenteric ganglia

aorticorenal ganglia

middle cervical ganglion

superior cervical ganglion

cervicothoracic ganglion

sympathetic trunk

cardiac plexus

pulmonary plexus

thoracic ganglia


superior mesenteric ganglion

celiac ganglia

small intestine

superior mesenteric ganglion

lumbar ganglion

Lumbar splanchnic nerves

sacral ganglia

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communicating branches nerve and parasympathetic nerve.

white communicating branches

gray communicating branches

spinal ganglia

gray communicating branch

posterior root

abdominal cavity ganglion

anterior root

white communicating branch

ganglia of sympathetic trunk

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The 3 directions of nerve and parasympathetic nerve.preganglionic fibers of sympathetic nerve:

intermediolateral nucleus—anterior root—trunk of spinal nerve—white communicating branches—sympathetic trunk

①End at the correspondent paravertebral ganglia,and change neuron.

②After trading upward or descending, terminates at the paravertebral ganglia.

(T1~T6)The preganglionic fibers of intermediolateral nucleus go up to cervical part in the sympathetic trunk, and change neuron in the paravertebral ganglia of cervical part.

(T6~T10)upgrading or descending in the sympathetic trunk, and change neuron in thoracic sympathetic ganglion.

(T11~L3)descending in the sympathetic trunk and change neuron in the sympathetic ganglion of lumbosacral area.

③After going through paravertebral ganglia, neuron is changed inprevertebral ganglia.

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The three directions of postganglionic fibre of sympathetic nerve

①The postganglionic fibre derived from sympathetic trunk return to spinal nerve via gray communicating branch, and distribute to pate, trunk and acral blood vessel, sweat glangds and arrector muscle.There aregray communicating branches between spinal nerves of 31 pairs and sympathetic trunk.The branches of spinal nerves usually contain postganglionic fibre of sympathetic nerve.

②To hold on to arteries and form correspondent nerve plexus on tunica adventitia of artery, anddistribute to the dominant organswith artery.

③Distribute directly to dominant organs from sympathetic ganglia.

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superior cervical ganglion nerve

The distribution of sympathetic nerve

middle cervical ganglion

cervical part:

superior cervical ganglion

middle cervical ganglion

inferior cervical ganglion

the 1stinferior cervical ganglion

cervicothoracic ganglion

cervicothoracic ganglion

cardiac plexus

sympathetic trunk

pulmonary plexus

thoracic ganglia

The distribution of postganglionic nerve fibers emerged from cervical part ganglia of sympathetic trunk:

①distribute on blood vessels, sweat glands and arrector muscles of head, neck and upper extremity.

②distribute directly to the adjacent arteries and form internal carotid plexus,external carotid plexus,subclavian plexusand vertebral plexus.

③the emergent pharyngeal branch composed of pharyngeal plexus with the pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve and cranial nerve.

④the 3 pairs of cervical ganglia of sympathetic trunk send out superior, middle and inferior cardiac nerve respectively and descend to thoracic cavity and add to cardiac plexus.

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thoracic part: nerve

thoracic sympathetic nerve

lie at the anterior aspect of capitulum costae

thoracic ganglia

10~12 ones(the 11 ones is mostly common)


①distribute on blood vessels, sweat glands and arrector muscle of thoracic and abdominal wall with 12 pairs of thoracic nerves via gray communicating branch.

②the 1st to 5th thoracic sympathetic ganglion→thoracic aortic plexus, esophageal plexus, pulmonary plexus and cardiac plexus and so on.

③the preganglionic fibre walking through the 6th to 9th thoracic ganglia constitute greater splanchnic nerve→celiac ganglia

④the preganglionic fibre walking through the 10th to 12th thoracic ganglia, constitute lesser splanchnic nerve→aorticorenal ganglia

⑤least splanchnic nerve

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middle cervical ganglion nerve

superior cervical ganglion

cervicothoracic ganglion

sympathetic trunk

cardiac plexus

pulmonary plexus

thoracic ganglia


superior mesenteric ganglion

celiac ganglia

small intestine

superior mesenteric ganglion

lumbar ganglion

splanchnic nerves

sacral ganglia

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lumbar part nerve

4 pairs of lumbar ganglion distribute branches

thoracic ganglia

There are 2 to 3 pairs of sacral ganglia and acoccygeal ganglion distribute branches:

①distribute with sacral and coccygeal nerve via gray communicating branches.

②some small branches add to pelvis plexus→pelvic cavity organs


celiac ganglia

superior mesenteric ganglion

small intestinal

superior mesenteric ganglion

lumbar ganglion

lumbar splanchnic nerves

sacral ganglia

pelvic part

① Distribute to 5 pairs of lumbar nerve via gray commmunicating branches.

② The preganglionic fibre walking through lumbar ganglion — lumbar splanchnic nerves→superior and inferior mesenteric ganglion,postganglionic fibre→the digestive canal below left flexure of colon and pelvic cavity organs.

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conclusions nerve:

1、The preganglionic fibre derived from the 1st to 5th of thoracic part intermediolateral nucleus change neuron, then the postganglionic fibre arrange blood vessels, sweat glands and arrector muscle of head, neck, thoracic cavity organs and upper limb.

2、The preganglionic fibre derived from the 6th to 12th of thoracic part intermediolateral nucleus change neuron, then the postganglionic fibre arrange liver, spleen, kidney and the intestine canal above left colic flexure .

3、The preganglionic fibers derived from the 1st to 3rd of lumbar part intermediolateral nucleus change neuron, then the postganglionic fibre arrange the intestine canal and pelvic cavity organs below left colic flexure and the blood vessels, sweat glands and arrector muscle of lower limb.

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parasympathetic nerve nerve

Lower center

Cranial part:

nucleus of oculomotor nerve

superior salivatory nucleus

inferior salivatory nucleus

dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve

Pars sacralis:

the second to 4th sacral parasympathetic nucleus

Parasympathetic ganglion

  • Head:ciliary ganglion、pterygopalatine ganglion、

  • submandibular ganglion、auricular ganglion

  • The ganglia lie at cardiac plexus, pulmonary plexus, vesical plexus and uterovaginal plexus,and the ganglia lie at bronchus and the wall of digestive canal.

The parasympathetic neuron belong to cholinergic neuron, and most of them contain VIP and CGRP and so on.

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parasympathetic nerve of cranial part nerve

accessory nucleus of

oculomotor nerve

cranial nerve

ciliary muscle

contractor pupillae muscle

ciliary ganglion

chorda tympani

submandibular gland、sublingual gland



submandibular ganglion


salivatory nucleus

great superficial

petrosal nerve

pterygopalatine ganglion

lachrymal gland

lesser petrosal nerve

cranial nerve

external salivary gland


salivatory nucleus

auricular ganglion

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dorsal nucleus nerve

of vagus

cranial nerve

Paraganglion of organ

intramural ganglion

thoracic cavity organs

abdominal cavity organs

(the intestine canal above left colic flexure)

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parasympathetic nerve of pars sacralis nerve

sacral parasympathetic nucleus

pelvic splanchnic


intestine canal above

Left colic flexure and pelvic cavity organs

paraganglion of organs

intramural ganglion

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The comparison of effect: parasympathetic nervous

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splanchnic plexus parasympathetic nervous

cardiac plexus

pulmonary plexus

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celiac plexus parasympathetic nervous

abdominal aortic plexus

hypogastric plexus

superior hypogastric plexus

inferior hypogastric plexus

(pelvic plexus)

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visceral sensory nerve parasympathetic nervous

peripheral process

geniculate ganglion

inferior jugular ganglion

inferior vagal ganglion

————cranial nerve

—ossopharyngeal nerve

—vagus nerve

central process

  • solitary

  • tract nucleus

→internal organ

peripheral process

  • spinal cord(intermediomedial nucleus)

central process

———sympathetic nerve

—parasympathetic nerve of pars sacralis

spinal ganglia




1. the pain threshold is higher.

2. dispersed visceralgia,the position isn’t exact.

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referred pain parasympathetic nervous

When some internal organs had pathological changes, hyperaesthesis or sense of pain usually emerged on some region of body surface. This phenomenon is called referred pain.

dermatomic area

afferent fibers of skin

(thoracic segments1~5)

spinothalamic tract

thoracic segments1~5

substantia gelatinosa

visceral afferent fiber(thoracic segments1~5)

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the innervation of some critical organ parasympathetic nervous


sensory nerve

general sensation→nervi ciliaris longi→nasociliary nerve→ophthalmic nerve→trigeminal nerves→brain stem→nucleus sensorius nervi trigemini

sympathetic nerve

spinal cordT1~T2lateral horn (preganglionic fibre)→thoracic and cervical sympathetic trunk→superior cervical ganglion (exchange neuron) → (postganglionic fibre) internal carotid plexus→cavernous plexus→ciliary ganglion→dilator muscle of pupil and blood vessels

parasympathetic nerve

Midbraina ccessory nucleus of oculomotor nerve(E-W nucelus)(preganglionic fibre) →oculomotornerve courser→ciliary ganglion (exchange neuron)→postganglionic fibre) short ciliary nerve→pupil sphincter muscle and ciliary muscle

  • The excitation of sympathetic nerve of dominating eyeball will cause corectasis and vasoconstriction of iris.

  • The excitation of parasympathetic nerve will lead to constriction of pupil and the contraction of ciliary muscle.

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Heart parasympathetic nervous

sensory nerve

Algesthesia fiber(walk along sympathetic nerve, exceptsuperior cervical cardiac nerve)→spinal cordT1~T4,T 5 segment

sensory fiber related to cardiac reflect(walk along vagus nerve) →enter into brain stem

sympathetic nerve

the lateral cord of spinal cord T1~T4,T 5 segment(preganglionic fiber)→the superior, middle and inferior ganglion ofsympathetic trunk, and the upper part of thoracic ganglia(exchange neuron)→give out from ganglion(the superior, middle and inferior cervical cardiac nerve and thoracic cardiac branches)→the posterior aspect and inferior aspect ofaortic arch(with the parasympathetic nerve come from vagus nerve)→cardiac plexus→heart

parasympathetic nerve

dorsal nucleus of vagus and ambiguous nucleus(preganglionic fibre)→walk along the rami cardiaci of vagus →cardiac ganglia(exchange neuron)→heart

  • The stimulation of sympathetic nerve dominating heart can induce tachycardia and the relaxation of coronary vessels.

  • The stimulation of vagus can induce bradycardia and the contraction of coronary vessels.