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Athens. End of Aristocratic Rule at Athens. Athens ruled by handful of noble families Eupatrids meaning “well sired” They formed a ruling council Eupatrid rule characterized by intense competition

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End of aristocratic rule at athens
End of Aristocratic Rule at Athens

  • Athens ruled by handful of noble families

    • Eupatrids meaning “well sired”

    • They formed a ruling council

    • Eupatrid rule characterized by intense competition

    • 620 BCE – Athenian law codified by Drakon - very harsh (draconian) laws

  • Solon’s solution – early democracy (594BCE)

    • Solon (Eupatrid) runs for archon based on debt relief and political reform

    • Elected archon in 594 BCE

    • Divides Athenians into 4 classes based on wealth (involving male citizens only)

      • 1. Pentekosiomedimnoi – 500 bushel men,

      • 2. Hippeis – Cavalry men,

      • 3. Zeugetai – Hoplite (foot soldiers) class,

      • 4. Thetes – everyone else)

    • All classes could vote for magistrates, vote in the assembly (Ekklesia), sit on law courts/juries

    • Top two classes only can run for Archon (chief magistrate

    • Top class alone can run for strategos (general)

The rule of peisistratus in athens
The Rule of Peisistratus in Athens

  • Immensely popular tyrant (except with nobles)

    • Did not change the constitution of Solon

    • Secured loyalty of nobles by appointing them to senior posts

  • Took vote away from Ekklesia (the assembly)

    • Established circuit judges

    • Put a 5% tax on agricultural produce

      • funds used to lend to poor farmers

    • Established major building program

    • died in 528 BCE – Succeeded by his sons Hippias and Hipparchus

      • V unpopular tyrants who were driven from Athens by Cleisthenes democratic revolution

508 bce reforms of cleisthenes
508 BCE Reforms of Cleisthenes

  • Recognizably democratic

  • Replaced economic divisions with geographic divisions

    • Which gave poor equal power as rich

    • Divided Attica (Athens region) into regions (Demes)

    • centered on villages, each with its own assembly and magistrates

  • Replaced 4 old tribes with 10 new tribes distributed throughout every Deme

    • New Boule (legislative council) of 500 made up of 50 members (elected by lot) from each tribe

    • Each tribe elected a strategos (general)

  • Designed to fragment the power base of nobles

  • Introduced Ostracism

    • 10 year exile of those who were growing too powerful

    • As a way to keep power from gathering around one or a few men.

Reforms of pericles 462 430
Reforms of Pericles (462-430)

  • Pericles THE great leader following the defeat of Persia – responsible for Athens’ success as a regional power.

  • let anyone serve as the archon (one of the nine central leaders of the country) despite birth or wealth.

    • The Assembly became the central power of the state. Consisting of all the free-born (no freed slaves) male citizens of Athens, the Assembly was given sole approval or veto power over every state decision.

    • The Assembly was not a representative government, but consisted of every male citizen (participatory).

    • In terms of numbers, this still was not a democratic state: women weren't included, nor were foreigners, slaves, or freed slaves.

  • Pericles also changed the rules of citizenship:

    • before the ascendancy of Pericles, anyone born of a single Athenian parent was an Athenian citizen; Pericles instituted laws which demanded that both parents be Athenian citizens.

  • So, in reality, the great democracy of Periclean Athens was in reality only a very small minority of the people living in Athens. It was, however, the closest human culture has come to an unadulterated democracy.

    • elected officials, such as military generals, were not chosen by the Assembly, but the Assembly did hire and fire all other public officials.

    • In addition, the Assembly served as a law court hearing major cases. Any decision made in a court of law could be appealed to the Assembly where a court of free citizens would hear the case. There was no standing army, either, as there was in Sparta; free citizens could choose to serve in the military.

Greek colonization
Greek Colonization

Reasons for colonization
Reasons for Colonization

  • Demographic Pressure

  • Land Hunger

  • Drought/agricultural failure

  • Political Conflict (stasis)

  • Trade

The consequences of colonization
The Consequences of Colonization

  • The diffusion of Greek cultural forms

  • The spread of the Polis system

  • The expansion of trade networks

  • Increased contact with non-Greek peoples

  • The growth of a distinctly “Hellenic” identity (esp. Pan-Hellenic Colonies)

Cultural developments of the archaic period
Cultural Developments of the Archaic Period

  • Pan-Hellenism (i.e. Oracle of Delphi; Olympic Games)

    • Things that all polies shared

  • “Orientalizing” Revolution

    • Colonies established in Asia minor (modern Turkey)

  • Speculative Philosophy

    • Looked for rational causes for natural events (rather than supernatural)

  • New Directions in Literature

    • Bardic tradition becomes recorded by alphabet (HOMER)

    • Poetic tradition begins

    • Religious hymns – the forerunner of theatre

Origins of the olympic games
Origins of the Olympic Games

  • First Olympic Games held in 776 BCE (first modern games held in 1896)

    • Greek athletics predate the Olympics (i.e. Iliad 23)

  • Only Greeks could participate (i.e. Pan-Hellenic institution)

    • Religious celebration in honor of Olympian Zeus

    • Opportunity for aristocratic class to display their arete (fame)

    • Women were excluded from competition

  • Women competed in separate event – The Heraia – In honor of Olympian Hera

  • Olympic events

    • Horse Race

    • Chariot Race

    • Running (Stadion; Diaulos; Dolichos)

    • Wrestling

    • Boxing

    • Pankration

    • Pentathlon (Running, Jumping, Discus, Javelin, Wrestling)

  • Pan-Hellenic games were stephanitic (crown) games

    • Prizes only given to victors (No second place etc.)

    • A young boy cut olive branches from sacred olive grove in the Altis

    • Made crowns of olives for victors

    • Victors allowed to erect statues of themselves at Olympia

    • No material value to the prize; conferred Arete and Time on the victor