Avant-Garde Modern Art (mostly painting)Paris was the capital of Modernism and the art world between 1850-1940 A Brief Introduction
Francisco Laso (Peru), Dweller in the Cordillera, 1855Tarsila doAmaral (Brazil),Abaporu, 1928 Academic versus Avant-Garde painting. Why do these paintings look different?
Claude Monet, Impression (Sunrise), 1873Claude Lorraine, Landscape with Apollo and Mercury, 1645 Modern revolution in formal language of painting
Auguste Renoir (left), Mont Sainte-Victoire, 1889 compared withPaulCézanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire, 1889, painted side by side Impressionist Renoir painting side by side with Post-Impressionist Cezanne
Georges Seurat, ASunday Afternoon on the Island of la Grande Jatte, 1884-86, o/c6’’9” x 10’ Art Institute of Chicago. Pointillism Increasing abstraction of modern painting / subject matter is modern life
Paul Signac, The Gulf of Sainte Tropez, 1892 - Pointillismcompare Henri Matisse, Luxe, Calme, et Volupté, 1904 early Fauvism From Pointillism to Fauvism – increasing freedom from mimetic illusionism
Henri Matisse, Woman with a Hat (Madame Matisse), 1904-5(right) Matisse, The Green Stripe (Madame Matisse), 1905 Fauvism – arbitrary color, gestural and obvious brush stroke – Rules of Western painting are broken in favor of direct expression
(left) Henri Matisse, Joy of Life, 1905-06 - Fauvism(right) Pablo Picasso, LesDemoiselles d’Avignon, 1907 - Proto Cubism
Modern art was transformed by the influence of non-Western art. In the early 20th century the primary source was African tribal sculpture “It is as if someone had drunk kerosene to spit fire."
Georges Braque (French), Houses at L’Estaque, August 1908, oil on canvas, 28 x 23”Early Cubism
(right) Picasso, Reservoir at Horta, summer 1909, with photograph of the Spanish town by the artist . Development of Cubism – arbitrary light and architectonic space that ignores the rules of scientific linear perspective. Proto-Cubism
High Analytic Cubism (left) Picasso, Ma Jolie (Woman with a Guitar), 1911(right) Braque, The Portuguese (The Emigrant), 1911
Umberto Boccioni (Italian Futurist, 1882-1916), States of Mind I: The Farewells, 1911 – Italian Futurismcompare right: Picasso, Ma Jolie, 1911 – Analytic Cubism Italian Futurism developed out of (School of Paris) Cubism – reintroduction of motion (diagonals) and color.
Luigi Russolo, Dynamism of an Automobile, 1912-1913, oil on canvas, 106 x 140 cm (right) Boccioni, Dynamism of a Soccer Player, 1913
(left) Armando Reverón (Venezuela, 1889-1954), The Cave, 1919, oil on canvas, 40 X 61 inches, Caracas, Venezuela, Private collection. Reverón returned from Paris in 1915 having rejected his fine art training in Caracas.(right) FranciscoGoya (Spanish painter and printmaker, 1746-1848) Naked Maja, 1800; and August Renoir (French Impressionist), 1917http://www.moma.org/exhibitions/2007/reveron/
Armando Reverón, Figure, n.d. (early 1920’s?), oil on canvas, 20 x 18 inches.
Armando Reverón, (left) Landscape and Shack, 1924(right) En Venta, c. 1940. The landscape of sea coast Macuto, Venezuela, where Reverónmoved in 1921. Small impressionist paintings done out of doors
Armando Reverón, Self Portrait with Dolls, c. 1949, charcoal, chalk, crayon, and pastel on paper on cardboard, 35 X 32 inches
Joaquín Clausell (Mexican, 1866 - 1935), La ola roja (The Red Wave), ca. 1910, oil on canvas, 100 X 150 cm. Mexican Impressionism / Post-Impressionism. Traveled to Europe in 1892-3 (including Paris) during the Porfiriato (1876-1911). Influenced by French Impressionism and possibly met French Impressionist Claude Monet and/or Camille Pissarro (who was born on St. Thomas).
Joaquín Clausell (Mexican, 1866 - 1935), La ola roja (The Red Wave), ca. 1910, oil on canvas, 100 X 150 cm. Mexican Impressionism / Post-Impressionism.Claude Monet, (French Impressionist) Rock Arch West of Etretat (The Manneport)1883, oil on canvas, 65.4 x 81.3 cm (25 3/4 x 32 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Joaquín Clausell (Mexican, 1866 - 1935), La ola roja (The Red Wave), ca. 1910, oil on canvas, 100 X 150 cm. Mexican Impressionism / Post-Impressionism. Influence of European modern art.José Maria Velasco (Mexican academic landscape painter), Valley of Mexico from the Hill of Santa Isabel, 1877, o/c, 5’3”x7’6”
Joaquín Clausell, Fuentes Brotantes (Fuentes Brotantes Park, Mexico City), 1910-1920 (none of his works are dated), oil on canvas, 89 X 150 cm
Dr. Alt (Gerardo Murillo, Mexican 1865-1964), The Volcanos, 1950, oil on masonite, 54 X 102 inches.According to Orozco, Dr. Alt came back from his first trip to Europe in 1904 with “the rainbow of the impressionists in his hands and . . . All the audacities of the Parisian School,” and he conveyed his enthusiasm to his Mexican colleagues with enthusiasm.
Dr. Alt (Gerardo Murillo, Mexican 1865-1964), The Volcanos, 1950, oil on masonite, 54 X 102 inches. José Maria Velasco (Mexican academic landscape painter), Valley of Mexico from the Hill of Santa Isabel, 1877, o/c, 5’3”x7’6” Which painting shows the influence of Avant-Garde Western Modernism?
Gerardo Murillo (Dr. Alt),The Paricutin Volcano Erupting, 1943, oil on canvas, 50 X 31in. Photograph below is of the 1943 cinder cone eruption.
Diego Rivera (Mexican, 1886 -1957), House over the Bridge, 1909, painted in Spain. The artist is 23 years old. Is this a Modernist painting?
(left) Diego Rivera, At the Fountain near Toledo, 1913, oil on canvas, 25.5 X 31.5 in. (top right) Piet Mondrian (Dutch, 1872–1944), Still Life with Ginger Jar, 1912. Mondrian was Rivera’s neighbor in Paris.(below right), Paul Cézanne (French Post-Impressionist, 1839-1906), 1885 Costumbrista, Symbolism, Cézanne, Cubism
Amedeo Modigliani (Italian in Paris from 1906, 1884-1920), Diego Rivera, c. 1908. (right) Modigliani, Portrait of the Jean Cocteau. 1916, Oil on canvas. 100 x 81 cm. Modigliani and Rivera were close friends in the Montmartre bohemian circle.
(left) Diego Rivera, Woman at the Well, 1913 (right) Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881-1973), Girl with a Mandolin, 1910 Pre-Analytic Cubism
(left) Diego Rivera, The Architect, 1914(right) Pablo Picasso, Three Musicians, 1921 Synthetic Cubism
Diego Rivera, Angeline and the Infant Diego, 1916. Rivera met Russian avant-garde artist Angeline Beloff in Europe and stayed with her from 1911-1921 when he returned to Mexico without her. Angeline Beloff gave birth to a son, Diego, who died before he was two years old.
General Porfirio Díaz (1830-1915)Left: 1867, during Mexico’s fight against French interventionRight: 1908 President of Mexico (from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1911)
Mexican Revolution 1910-1920 José Vasconcelos Secretary of Education under Obregón Álvaro Obregón, President of Mexico, 1920–25 Emiliano Zapata (1887-1919) Pancho Villa (1877-1923)
Diego Rivera, Zapatista Landscape – The Guerilla, 1915 Painted in Paris – Mexican subject and Synthetic Cubist style
(left) Tarsila do Amaral (Brazil, 1886-1973), Self-Portrait, oil on paper, 15 in. H, 1924(right) Amaral, Portrait of Oswald de Andrade, 1922.
Tarsila do Amaral, Self Portrait, oil on canvas, 30 in. H. 1920(?)Amaral studied in Paris 1920- June 1922and December 1922 to December 1923Avant-garde modern art and rejection of academic art Post-Impressionist style – the brushstroke is obvious and gestural, an impression is captured rather than strict mimetic illusionism, but the palette is “local” (realistic) and the figure is foreshortened and shaded to give a traditional illusion of three dimensionality.
(left) Anita Malfatti (Brazilian, 1889-1964), La Boba, 1915. Amaral’s correspondant in Sâo Paulo,Malfatti was in Germany between 1910-1915. Malfatti’s 1917 exhibition in Sao Paulo, provoked hostility and scandal.(right) Ernst Kirchner (German Expressionist) Self-Portrait as Soldier, 1916
Anita Malfatti, The Yellow Man, 1915-16, charcoal and pastel on paper, 61 X 45.5 cm, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Cover of catalog from art exhibition from the Semana de Arte Moderna (Week of Modern Art), an arts festival in São Paulo, Brazil, from February 11 to February 18, 1922 organized by Mário de Andrade and the Group of Five. The illustration is by Emiliano di Cavalcanti.
“I am deeply Brazilian and I am going to study the taste and the art of our country people. I hope to learn with those who have not been corrupted by the academies. To be a Brazilian artist is not to paint only Brazilian landscapes and farmhands.” - Tarsila do Amaral, 1923 (Paris)
(right) Amaral, Black Woman, 1923, oil, (painted in Paris), Museum of Contemporary Art, U of Sâo Paulo. Compare with 1920 self portrait (center) (left) Constantin Brancusi (Romanian) Blonde Negress, 1926School of Paris Primitivism
Paul Gauguin, Self-portrait, ceramic mug, c.1890 with Moche portrait ceramic vessel, c.700 CE, Peru. Gauguin, part indigenous Peruvian, is considered the Father of Primitivism in Western art in the late 19th century school of Paris avant-garde
(left) Amaral, Abaporu (“Man who eats” in Tupi-Guarani),1928, oil, 33 ½ in H Inspired Andrade’s “Anthropophagite Manifesto”: cannibalism as a metaphor for Brazil’s transformation of European culture(right) Albert Gleizes (French “academic” Cubist 1881-1953), Stravinsky, 1919.
(left) Amaral, An Angler, mid-1920’s, the Hermitage(right) Carnival in Madureira, 1924, oil on canvas, 30 in. HTravels with French poet, Blaise Cendrars and Oswald de Andrade, 1924Palette signifies “Brazil” versus “Europe” “…colors I had adored as a child. I was later taught they were ugly and unsophisticated.”
Amaral, Central Railway of Brazil, 1924, oil, 56 in. H, Sâo Paulocompare Fernand Léger (French Cubist, 1881-1955) The City, 1919Embrace of modernity? Colonial Cubism?“Cubism is the military service of the artist. To be strong, every artist should go through it” - Amaral
Poetry exists in facts. The shacks of saffron and ochre among the greens of the hillside favelas, under cabraline blue, are aesthetic facts. We have a dual heritage – the jungle and the school. Our credulous mestizo race, then geometry, algebra and chemistry after the baby's bottle and herbal tea. Oswald de Andrade Pau-Brazil Poetry manifesto 1924,
(left) Amaral, Urutu (a poisonous snake) 1928, oil, 24 in. H, private collection, Río de Janeiro. (right) Giorgio de Chirico, Italian Metaphysical School (proto-Surrealism) The Great Metaphysician, c. 1913 Influence of Surrealism and current Brazilian notion of the country as a great snake