phonology cross linguistic variation
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Phonology: Cross-linguistic variation. LING 200 Winter 2009. Plan for today. Phonological typology Examples from Chinese and Korean Phonological rules and foreign accents Examples from Spanish and English For further learning about sounds of spoken languages: LING 450.

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Presentation Transcript
plan for today
Plan for today
  • Phonological typology
    • Examples from Chinese and Korean
  • Phonological rules and foreign accents
    • Examples from Spanish and English
  • For further learning about sounds of spoken languages: LING 450

please turn off your cell phone

phonological typology
Phonological typology
  • = Different types of phonological systems
    • Variation in phoneme inventories
    • Variation in phonological rules
    • Variation in consonant, vowel sequencing restrictions
mandarin chinese vowel inventory
Mandarin (Chinese) vowel inventory

[y] = high front rounded vowel

[ɤ] = mid back unrounded vowel

mandarin vowels
Mandarin vowels

Chia-Hui Huang, Taiwanese and Mandarin speaker

[ ̂] = high falling tone

mandarin tones
Mandarin tones
  • From

http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/publications/files/lf10/lf10_sounds.html

male and female speakers

korean vowels1
Korean vowels

Sophie Ahn, from Pusan, but speaking here in Seoul (standard Korean) accent

korean glides
Korean glides

/w/  [ɥ] / C ___ i [ɥ] = high front rounded glide

 [ö̯] / C ___ e [ö̯] = mid front rounded glide

[u] : [w] :: [y] : [ɥ] :: [ö] : [ö̯]

[wi] ‘upper part; stomach’

[tɥi] ‘behind’

[weka] ‘maternal family, house’

[k’ö̯e] ‘idea, scheme; quite’

korean consonants
Korean consonants

C’ = “tense” or “fortis” (small glottal opening)

p p’ ph t t’ th k k’ kh

ts ts’ tsh

s s’ h

m n ŋ

l

w j

korean tense consonants
Korean tense consonants

[pul] ‘fire’ [tɑl] ‘moon’

[p’ul] ‘horn’ [t’ɑl] ‘daughter’

[phul] ‘grass’ [thɑl] ‘face mask’

[ki] ‘flag’ [sɑl] ‘flesh, skin’

[k’i] ‘meal’ [s’ɑl] ‘raw rice’

[khi] ‘height’

/s/ = [sh]

liquids in korean
Liquids in Korean

One liquid phoneme

/l/  [ɺ] / ___ V (unless long)

([ɺ] = alveolar lateral or retroflex flap)

korean liquids
Korean liquids

[ɺ] [l]

[uɺi] ‘we’ [mul] ‘water’

[kɑɺu] ‘powder’ [ilkop] ‘seven’

[ɺupi] ‘ruby’

[l:]

[tal:e] ‘wild garlic’

/l/  [ɺ] / ___ V (unless long)

foreign accents and borrowed words
Foreign accents and borrowed words
  • Foreign accents
    • learner’s phonology the culprit
    • especially if language learned as adult
  • Borrowed words
    • codified foreign accent: borrowed words pronounced according to phonology of borrowing language
spanish consonants
Spanish consonants

p b t d k g

ʧ

f s x

m n ɲ

l

w ɾj

Notice: no /h/

/x/ = voiceless velar fricative

spanish rhotics
Spanish rhotics

[ɾ] [pɑɾɑ] ‘for’

[r] = /ɾɾ/ [pɑrɑ] ‘vine’

Word-initially, no contrast; [ɾ] usually  [r] there

spanish loans into english
Spanish loans into English

[ɣ] = voiced velar fricative

where you can go wrong
Where you can go wrong
  • Misapplying English phonology to Spanish
    • Aspiration (not in Spanish): [thɑko]
    • Plural suffix –[z]: [phɑdɹez]
    • Mid back rounded vowel not a diphthong in Spanish: [bəɹiɾoʊ]
  • Failing to learn Spanish phonology
    • voiced fricative, not stop, after vowel: [pɑðɾes]
  • Failing to learn Spanish phonetics
    • [burito] as [bəɹiɾoʊ]
no aspiration
No aspiration

[peso] (monetary unit of Mexico)

[beso] ‘kiss’

[tono] ‘tone’

[dono] ‘I donate’

[koðo] ‘elbow’

[goðo] ‘goth’

No mid vowel diphthongs

[rejno] ‘kingdom’ vs. [reno] ‘reindeer’

question
Question

What do you think you will still remember about the phonetics/phonology part of this class 5 years from now?

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