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UNCLASSIFIED. USAFRICOM Case Study TRANSCOM JDPAC. UNCLASSIFIED. (25 Feb 09). Overview. UNCLASSIFIED. Background Mobility Challenges Discussion Requirements Infrastructure DPS Extension. UNCLASSIFIED. Background. UNCLASSIFIED. Case Study Purpose

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USAFRICOM Case Study TRANSCOM JDPAC


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    1. UNCLASSIFIED USAFRICOM Case StudyTRANSCOM JDPAC UNCLASSIFIED (25 Feb 09)

    2. Overview UNCLASSIFIED • Background • Mobility Challenges • Discussion • Requirements • Infrastructure • DPS Extension UNCLASSIFIED

    3. Background UNCLASSIFIED • Case Study Purpose • Determine impact of AFRICOM on mobility system • Extend DPS insights to African continent • AFRICOM Background • Established in Feb 2007, FOC 1Q FY09 • 191 transition team personnel FY07 • 1600+ personnel in FY10 • Organized by regions aligned with the African Union • Challenged by continent andCONUS/OCONUS nature of HQ UNCLASSIFIED

    4. Mobility Challenges UNCLASSIFIED Argentina United States China Western Europe Chicago—Honolulu: 4250 miles New York—Moscow: 4674 miles Tunis • Key Mobility challenges in Africa • Distance • Culture • Infrastructure • Fuel • Business Practices • Environment Dakar 4,365 miles – Dakar to Mogadishu Mogadishu 4,885 miles – Tunis to Cape Town Cape Town UNCLASSIFIED

    5. Requirements UNCLASSIFIED • Strategic lift requirements remain constant • AFRICOM HQ remains consolidated • SSSP and historic data have similar strategic lift • Theater lift may increase when engagement increases • Focus on dispersing pax/cargo using organic and commercial assets • Increased staff travel volume/frequency to Africa, with increased engagement deeper into AOR • Regional Integration Teams (RITs) on indefinite hold • Commercial lift available to major population centers, but infrequent and not interconnected (i.e., return to Europe between stops) • Lack of DOD-certified commercial carriers on continent • Stand up of AFRICOM will not impact peak demand for lift; steady state requirement small relative to overall demand UNCLASSIFIED

    6. Infrastructure UNCLASSIFIED • Increased focus on Africa JDDE infrastructure • AFRICOM En Route Infrastructure Steering Committee • Expect increase in air and sea port survey requests • Airlift - coverage/reach not an issue • 2,000nm range sufficient to reach most locations from 2 airfields • Overflight & airfield facilities will be limiting factors • Sealift - very few deep water ports (LMSR capable) • SDDC surveyed 29 ports in 21 countries; only 4 green in all categories • Assessment of all ports by length/depth looking at 3 ship types • Only a few countries better than base line based on number of berths Note: Did not consider overflight for reach Only considered runway length/width for accessibility UNCLASSIFIED

    7. Infrastructure (cont) UNCLASSIFIED • Surface infrastructure presents mobility challenges • Limited strategic off-load infrastructure/capability • Road and Rail throughput capability limited/poor and not well connected • Current PREPO options are limited • Few land storage candidates have been identified (climate, political stability) • Afloat PREPO candidates limited by SPODS and coast to point of need distance • African Fuels Initiative - contracts for total quantity • Expect to bring our own fuel • Refining capacity shrinking and demand increasing UNCLASSIFIED

    8. DPS Extension to Continent UNCLASSIFIED • Assessment of all countries and regions based on sea access, roads, rail, inland waterways, water, and fuel • Compare infrastructure in to assess ability to deploy and sustain DPS-like operation • Each category subjectively evaluated on 1-3 scale • Not a thorough assessment of each category (e.g., miles of roads, not size/quality) • Weight each category for overall score • Ivory Coast and Nigeria have highest score (58) UNCLASSIFIED

    9. DPS Extension - By Country UNCLASSIFIED North Region West Region East Region Central Region South Region

    10. Conclusion UNCLASSIFIED • AFRICOM steady state requirements will not drive peak demand • Current mobility assets generally unsuited for deploying/sustaining large scale operation in Africa • Trade off between size of operation, African infrastructure/access, and mobility force structure UNCLASSIFIED

    11. UNCLASSIFIED Questions UNCLASSIFIED

    12. Review of Case Study Research UNCLASSIFIED • Review of Steady State Demand • Airlift (Channel, CENTCOM HOA, and others) and Sealift Movements • AFRICOM-based Defense Planning Scenarios • Command briefings (Transition Team, Master Plan, Air Support Requirements, OSA Assessment) • AFRICOM and EUCOM En Route Infrastructure Steering Committee briefings • SDDC/TEA and AMC studies • Africa Center for Strategic Studies, African Fuels Initiative • African Development Bank Study on Infrastructure • Discussions with AFRICOM (Mr. Denny D’Angelo) • Geospacial Integrated Digital Environment (GIDE) • United Nations Economic and Social Council UNCLASSIFIED

    13. COCOM Manpower Summary (FY 2008) UNCLASSIFIED Back (A/O 16 0001Z Oct 07) OPR: TCJ5/4 UNCLASSIFIED From AFRICOM Discussion brief, Defense Senior Leadership Council meeting held 1 October 2007 Legend 6,000 Legend Active Military 5334 5182 Civilian Active Military (authorized JTD) Contractor Civilian (authorized JTD) 462 5,000 Contractor (command provided) Individual Augmentees (IA) FSNs Individual Augmentees (IA) 4170 FSNs 3871 3788 4,000 2,265 249 3350 24 1,205 2989 531 413 1,162 3,000 2693 2710 220 2429 715 2302 585 4,872 1,084 61 810 1,292 915 859 309 1772 2,000 456 770 1543 157 433 326 500 2,937 747 412 577 947 583 209 2,376 1,000 447 1,743 1,728 1,635 1,555 1,063 1,031 1,021 977 796 684 0 EUCOM JFCOM SOCOM NORAD NORTHCOM PACOM AFRICOM (≤) CENTCOM Joint Staff NATO TRANSCOM STRATCOM Other Joint SOUTHCOM 13

    14. African Population Distribution UNCLASSIFIED Back Sparsely Populated Greatest Population Density • Population centers

    15. C-5 Access - AFPAM 10-1403 Load UNCLASSIFIED Back Dakar Intl, Senegal • C-5 useable airfields • 2,200nm, unrefueled based on 61.3 ston • 2,575nm, unrefueled based on 45 ston 10-1403 Rings 2,000nm Rings 3,500nm Rings C-5 C-17 C-130 Mombasa Intl, Kenya

    16. C-5 Access - AMC Planning Factor UNCLASSIFIED Back Dakar Intl, Senegal Mombasa Intl, Kenya • C-5 useable airfields • 2,000nm, unrefueled 10-1403 Rings 2,000nm Rings 3,500nm Rings C-5 C-17 C-130

    17. C-5 Access - Refueled AMC Planning Factor UNCLASSIFIED Back Dakar Intl, Senegal Mombasa Intl, Kenya • C-5 useable airfields • 3,500nm, refueled 10-1403 Rings 2,000nm Rings 3,500nm Rings C-5 C-17 C-130

    18. C-17 Access - AFPAM 10-1403 Load UNCLASSIFIED Back Dakar Intl, Senegal Mombasa Intl, Kenya • C-17 useable airfields • 2,200nm, unrefueled based on 45 ston 10-1403 Rings 2,000nm Rings 3,500nm Rings C-5 C-17 C-130

    19. C-17 Access - AMC Planning Factor UNCLASSIFIED Back Dakar Intl, Senegal Mombasa Intl, Kenya • C-17 useable airfields • 2,000nm, unrefueled 10-1403 Rings 2,000nm Rings 3,500nm Rings C-5 C-17 C-130

    20. C-17 Access - Refueled AMC Planning Factor UNCLASSIFIED Back Dakar Intl, Senegal Mombasa Intl, Kenya • C-17 useable airfields • 3,500nm, refueled 10-1403 Rings 2,000nm Rings 3,500nm Rings C-5 C-17 C-130

    21. C-130 Access - AFPAM 10-1403 Load UNCLASSIFIED Back Cairo Intl, Egypt Dakar Intl, Senegal Lusaka Intl, Zambia • C-130 useable airfields • 1,625nm, unrefueled based on 12 ston (B) • 2100nm, unrefueled based on 6 ston (P) 10-1403 Rings 1,000nm Rings 2,000nm Rings C-5 C-17 C-130

    22. C-130 Access - AMC Planning Factor UNCLASSIFIED Back Oran International, Algeria Cairo International, Egypt Dakar Intl, Senegal Mombasa Intl, Kenya Libreville Intl, Gabon Windhoek Airport, Namibia • C-130 useable airfields • 1,000nm, unrefueled 10-1403 Rings 1,000nm Rings 2,000nm Rings C-5 C-17 C-130

    23. C-130 Access - Refueled AMC Planning Factor UNCLASSIFIED Back Dakar Intl, Senegal Mombasa Intl, Kenya • C-130 useable airfields • 2,000nm, refueled 10-1403 Rings 1,000nm Rings 2,000nm Rings C-5 C-17 C-130

    24. Discussion - Airlift UNCLASSIFIED Back Dakar Intl, Senegal Mombasa Intl, Kenya • Airfield coverage/reach • 2,000nm unrefueled range capable of reaching most of Africa from two airfields (Dakar & Mombasa) • C-5 & C-17 capable with standard planning loads • C-130 unrefueled range requires 3 airfields with standard load; can go over 2,000nm with JCA load • Airfield access • 93% of JCA-only airfields w/in50 miles of C-130 airfields Note: Did not consider overflight for reach Only considered runway length/width for accessibility C-17 capable airfields UNCLASSIFIED

    25. Discussion - Sealift UNCLASSIFIED Back • Assessment of SDDC surveyed ports • 29 ports in 21 countries • Looked at 3 categories (length/draft, RORO ramp, CTNR cranes) • 4 ports are green for all three • 11 ports green on two or more • 14 ports have no cranes; ships must be self supporting • UN Report not flattering • 80% ships more than 50 years old (vs 15% global) • 80 major ports account for 95% import/export • Problems with equipment, safety and productivity • Inland water transport critical, but unreliable UNCLASSIFIED

    26. Discussion - Sealift UNCLASSIFIED Back • Assessment of all seaports using GIDE considering only length/draft • Did not consider other restrictions (approach, berth type, onward movement) • From sealift perspective, sustainment of larger force is better supported by countries rich in large berths with APS/MPS access or RO/RO or JHSV access UNCLASSIFIED

    27. Seaports (west) UNCLASSIFIED Back LMSR/FSS: Green: No known restrictions limiting possible FSS/LMSR ops at max draft. Yellow: Draft or LOA restrictions exist which limit FSS/LMSR ops. Red: Draft and LOA restrictions (among others) preclude possible FSS/LMSR ops. 2 1 3 RORO Ramp: Green: Dedicated RORO facilities or port handles RORO on regular basis. Yellow: No RORO ramp, but apron configuration makes RORO ops possible. Red: Port not capable of supporting RORO ops (by vessels with draft >26 ft). 4 Container Cranes: Green: Dedicated container gantry cranes, minimum capacity 40 stons. Yellow: Portal jib or other cranes capable of off-loading minimum 40 stons. Red: No container cranes. Vessels must be self-sustaining. 5 6 7 8 12 13 11 10 9 14 15 16 17 18 • Seaports

    28. Seaports (east) UNCLASSIFIED Back LMSR/FSS: Green: No known restrictions limiting possible FSS/LMSR ops at max draft. Yellow: Draft or LOA restrictions exist which limit FSS/LMSR ops. Red: Draft and LOA restrictions (among others) preclude possible FSS/LMSR ops. 29 RORO Ramp: Green: Dedicated RORO facilities or port handles RORO on regular basis. Yellow: No RORO ramp, but apron configuration makes RORO ops possible. Red: Port not capable of supporting RORO ops (by vessels with draft >26 ft). Container Cranes: Green: Dedicated container gantry cranes, minimum capacity 40 stons. Yellow: Portal jib or other cranes capable of off-loading minimum 40 stons. Red: No container cranes. Vessels must be self-sustaining. 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 • Seaports (cont)

    29. APS/MPS Capable Seaport UNCLASSIFIED Back 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 23 13 14 12 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2 1 11

    30. Shallow Draft (JHSV) Access UNCLASSIFIED Back • Assessment based on length/draft • Total 502 berths in 33 countries (top 12 shown) UNCLASSIFIED

    31. Seaport Assessment UNCLASSIFIED Back Ship TypeAPS/MPS Med RO/ROJHSV Length960660393 Draft+2383617 Cntry122033 Berths55110502 • Assessment of seaports using GIDE • Considering only length/draft • Did not consider other restrictions (approach, berth type, onward movement) UNCLASSIFIED

    32. Major Roads in Africa UNCLASSIFIED Back • 80-90% transport by road, but... • Poorly maintained • Poorly connected • "Primary" ≠ all weather • 25% paved • Low road density • 6.84km/100km2 • 12km/100km2 for Latin America

    33. Trans-Africa Highway Network UNCLASSIFIED Back

    34. Rail System UNCLASSIFIED Back • Very little interconnectivity • 17 countries have no rail • Different gauges (even in same country) • Rail lines poorly maintained

    35. Discussion - Fuels UNCLASSIFIED Back Canary Islands Ascension Island POL < 150,000 USGs POL 150,000 USGs – 500,000 USGs POL > 500,000 USGs No Contract, Unknown Fuel • African Fuels Initiative • Into-Plane/Truck contracts • Specify total quantity for period of contract • Some can be expanded • Limited availability • Refining capacity used • Storage unknown • Interior Continent • Resupply limited • Poor infrastructure • Politics • Quality issues

    36. Fuels - Into Plane/Truck Contracts UNCLASSIFIED Back 28 Canary Islands 8 3 22 23 19 4 6,7 20 14 21 9 12 5 13 1 2 10 29 30 11 15 27 16 Ascension Island 24 31 32 18 17 26 POL < 150,000 USGs POL 150,000 USGs – 500,000 USGs POL > 500,000 USGs 25 No Contract, Unknown Fuel

    37. Fuels - Refineries UNCLASSIFIED Back 2 Simple 1 Bitumen 1 Complex 1 Simple 4 Simple 4 Simple 1 Simple 1 Simple 1 Complex 1 Simple 1 Simple 1 Simple 1 Simple 1 Complex 1 Simple 1 Simple 1 Simple 1 Simple 1 Simple 1 Simple 1 Simple 4 Simple 3 Simple 7 Simple 2 Complex 1 Simple 1 Complex 1 Simple 1 Simple 1 Simple 4 Complex

    38. Overall Transportation Assessment UNCLASSIFIED Back

    39. Overall Transportation Assessment UNCLASSIFIED Back

    40. African Fresh Water UNCLASSIFIED Back

    41. Back