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The Turing Test for Game AI. Bing Gordon Electronic Arts June 2005. “I wish someone would…”. …develop a 'metric' for computer npc ai. Kind of an eliza scorecard.”. 1. Context Powers of 10…. 1981 Atari VCS 128 bytes 1986 NES 2K + 2K 1989 Sega Genesis 64K+64K

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The turing test for game ai l.jpg

The Turing Test for Game AI

Bing Gordon

Electronic Arts

June 2005


I wish someone would l.jpg
“I wish someone would…”

  • …develop a 'metric' for computer npc ai.

  • Kind of an eliza scorecard.”


1 context powers of 10 l.jpg
1. Context Powers of 10…

  • 1981 Atari VCS 128 bytes

  • 1986 NES 2K + 2K

  • 1989 Sega Genesis 64K+64K

  • 1994 Sony Playstation 2 MB + 512K

  • 2001 Playstation 2 32MB +4MB

  • 2006 PSX3/Xbox 2 512MB

  • 2012? PS4/Xbox 3? 5G?


Context powers of polish l.jpg
Context Powers of polish …

  • 75% of 90+ rated games are hits.

  • 25% of 90+ rated movies are hits.

    Source: Metacritic.com


Powered by feature innovation l.jpg

Aspirations

Tiger swing

Gameface

Franchise mode

Dynamic sports news

Assymmetrical sides

Badges

Anti-grav gun

Auction House

Living city

Crash mode

Freestyle

Console online voice and custom maps

Powered by Feature Innovation


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Quality bars of the near-future

  • Procedurally generated content

  • “Emergent” behaviors, collisions

  • Believable characters

  • 100x physics

  • Portable avatars, persistent assets

  • Communities

  • Economies and money

  • Camera POV and LOD drives gameplay

  • Collaborative and dynamic intelligences


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AI could be a “killer app” feature of next gen

  • Characters:

    • Awareness

    • Memory

    • Complex motives, simple commands

    • 100x RAM allocation

  • Procedural responses

    • Parsers

    • Stitching

    • Pathfinding and cover

  • Must be co-developed with animators!

    • Game AI must be acted out and seen

    • Expressions & gestures> pathing


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EA Learning We are Influenced by the success of our “Killer Apps”

  • Pinball Construction Set -- floppy disk

  • Deluxe Paint -- graphics co-processor

  • EA Sports – 16-bit processor

  • Interactive movies – cd-rom

  • MMO’s – servers

  • Sims – object-oriented programming

  • Spore – procedural animation

  • Etc.


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2. EA Learning EA Sports is a tech story

  • 16-bit (1990) Sports simulations

    • Individual ratings

    • Dynamic simulations

  • Playstation (1994) 3D Sports

    • Z-axis passing, tackling

  • Playstation 2 (2000) Articulation

    • Skeletal modeling and animation


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What EA learned from John Madden

  • The Oakland Raiders playbook

    • Matchup strategy

    • 5 zones of field-position

  • One Knee Equals Two Feet

    • Player ratings

    • All-Madden team


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The Madden Test (of game AI)

  • 1985: “That’s not football!”

  • 1990: “I’d fire the coach!”

  • 1995: “What are those guys doing?”

  • 2000: “Rookie, you’re cut!”

  • 2005: “That’s the way I designed it!”






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97 -- Grand Theft Auto III

97 -- Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 3

96 -- Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty

95 -- Grand Theft Auto: Vice City

95 -- Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas

95 -- Gran Turismo 3 A-Spec

95 -- Madden NFL 2003

95 -- Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 4

95 -- Devil May Cry

94 -- God of War

94 -- Madden NFL 2002

94 -- Madden NFL 2004

94 -- Burnout 3: Takedown

94 -- NCAA Football 2004

94 -- Virtua Fighter 4

93 -- Pro Evolution Soccer

93 -- SSX

93 -- SSX 3

93 -- World Soccer Winning Eleven 6 International

93 -- NFL2K

3. Reviewers What EA learned from www.metacritic.com


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3. Reviewers AI is not critical…yet

  • AI cited for 6/20 top PS2 games.

    • Metal Gear, NFL x 4, Soccer

  • AI cited for 3/10 top PC games.

    • Half Life x 2, Civilization


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When AI is applauded…

  • Appropriate npc behaviors

    • Dynamic adjustments

    • Satisfying mistakes

    • Coordinated attacks/retreats

  • Challenging opponent


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When AI is punished…

  • Too easy

    • No cover

    • “Money plays”

  • Too dumb

    • Low awareness

    • “Deer in headlights”


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"Do NOT duck inside those doors, men! Honorable warriors need no cover!"

Pointless Waste of Time.com


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4. An experiment need no cover!" A Turing Test for Game AI(version 1.0)

  • Clips from 5 games

    • Madden, FIFA, Fight Night, Mortal Kombat

    • Many others could not be tested

  • “Player or AI controlled?”

  • App by Karim Mahrous, UCD phd candidate


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Format of test need no cover!"

  • Watch a clip, multiple replays

  • Player or AI control for specific character.

  • Rationale:

    • Pathing

    • Reaction

    • Timing

    • Effectiveness

    • Orientation

    • Awareness

  • 80 respondents


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App need no cover!"


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Madden 2001 need no cover!"


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Madden 2001 need no cover!"Results


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Madden 2005 – Clip 1 need no cover!"


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Madden 2005 – Clip 1 need no cover!"Results


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Madden 2005 – Clip 2 need no cover!"


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Madden 2005 – Clip 2 need no cover!"Results


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Results are discouraging (so far) need no cover!"

  • 60% accurate

  • Clip > game or technology

  • 0 correlation between rationale, correctness

  • Possible improvement in “orientation” AI between Madden 01 and 05.


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5. For example need no cover!" Feature metacritic planning for


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Metal Gear Solid 2 need no cover!"

95 metacritic overall

Cited by 4/5 top reviews

#2-4 feature mentioned

“communication chain”

“perceptive reinforcements”

“teams of soldiers will find you”

“frighteningly intelligent”

“Outclassing every game on PS2”

Half Life 2

95 metacritic overall

Cited by 2/3 top reviews

#5 feature mentioned

“use cover effectively”

“run away from grenades”

“actively hunt players down and flank you ”

“if you hurt them, they set up traps”

“Nothing less than incredible”

Competitive quality barEnemy Combat AI


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Civilization 2 need no cover!"

94 overall

Cited by 3/3 top reviews

#2-5 feature mentioned

“you pay for your mistakes”

“clever and resourceful in negotiation”

“respects your power in battles”

“may act like a bonehead at times”

Madden Football

94 overall

Cited by 3/6 top reviews

#2-6 feature mentioned

“Geek out the AI to the viciousness you like”

“Players make plays all over the field”

“Tough half-time adjustments”

“Gone are the massive scores…”

“AI is advanced to another level”

Hall of fame feature Opponent command AI


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Hall of Fame Feature need no cover!"Pathfinding and formations

  • Rome: Total War

    • 92 overall

    • Cited by 2/4 top reviews

    • #5 feature mentioned

    • “enjoyable and convincing”

    • “centered around troop morale”

    • “moments of divine inspiration”

    • “on occasion, cretinous”


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Recommended Spore AI goals need no cover!"

  • Half Life 2: enemy hunting AI

  • Metal Gear Solid 2: communication chains

  • Civilization 2: city/star combat and diplomacy

  • Madden Football: “half time adjustments”

  • Rome Total War: pathfinding and formations

  • Plus:

    • Procedural combat

    • Collaborative filtering


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10 predictions need no cover!"

Areas of discovery for next-gen features


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My bookshelf need no cover!"

  • Confessions of an Advertising Man, Ogilvy

  • Positioning, Ries and Trout

  • The Fifth Discipline, Senge

  • How Hits Happen, Farrell

  • Net Gain, Hagel & Armstrong

  • The Innovator’s Dilemma, Christenson

  • The Medici Effect, Frans Johansson


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  • Thanks need no cover!"

  • bgordon@ea.com


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