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CEC – Natural Gas Public Interest Research Program Large Industrial/Commercial Equipment Gas Quality Stakeholders’ Technical Committee Meeting Gas Company Tower Los Angeles, CA January 10, 2006. Industrial / Commercial Burners. Area with least interchangeability data

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CEC – Natural Gas Public Interest Research ProgramLarge Industrial/Commercial EquipmentGas Quality Stakeholders’ Technical Committee MeetingGas Company TowerLos Angeles, CAJanuary 10, 2006

industrial commercial burners
Industrial / Commercial Burners
  • Area with least interchangeability data
  • GTI is conducting a survey with California focus for 11-member sponsor group of
    • Work is currently underway
    • Expected completion of Jan. 31, 2006
    • Data to be input into CEC project
  • CEC Project planned for 2006
    • GTI – industrial burner interchangeability testing
    • LBNL – appliance air quality
task 1 industrial burners
Task 1 – Industrial Burners
  • Burners
    • Classification
    • Applications
    • Physical types
    • manufacturers
  • California industrial gas use by industry
  • California burner population
  • Burner performance variables
  • Burner test protocols
  • Current range of California gas
  • Established current California gas ranges
  • Anticipated LNG and off-spec gas
upcoming cec project
Upcoming CEC Project
  • Expected start in March, 2006
  • Stakeholders committee to monitor usefulness of project results
  • Technical advisory committee relying on expertise to assist project team as project proceeds
  • Activities
    • Selection of performance variables, test protocols, burners with control systems
    • Testing in GTI laboratory furnaces
    • Modeling of burner sensitivity to fuel changes
industrial burner classification criteria
Industrial Burner Classification Criteria
  • Mixing Type
  • Fuel Type
  • Oxidizer Type
  • Draft Type
  • Heating Type
  • Burner Geometry
major burner control methods
Major Burner Control Methods
  • On / Off Operation
  • High / Low Operation
  • Modulating or variable firing rate
major process control variables
Major Process Control Variables
  • Furnace Temperature
  • Load Temperature
  • Load Temperature Uniformity
  • Oxygen Trimming
  • Moisture Content
  • Time-temperature profile
  • Time at setpoint temperature
burner applications
Burner Applications
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Thermal Radiation
    • Drying
    • Plastic thermoforming
    • Paint curing
  • Radiant Tube
    • Indirect heating
  • Radiant Wall
    • Process Industry
burner applications9
Burner Applications
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Metals Industry
  • Ceramic/Glass Industry
burner applications10
Burner Applications
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Zinc Distillation
  • Metals Industry
  • Glass Industry
burner applications11
Burner Applications
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Chemical and Hydrocarbon Process Industries
burner applications12
Burner Applications
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Steam Generation
  • Water Heating
  • Space Heating
burner applications13
Burner Applications
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Space Heating
  • Turbine Exhaust
  • Uniform Spread Heating
burner applications14
Burner Applications
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Metal Heating
  • Metal Melting
  • Glass Melting
  • Mineral Calcining
burner applications15
Burner Applications
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Petrochemical Industries
industrial natural gas demand by sector in california 2000 2004

Petroleum

35%

Other

18%

.

Nonmetallic Mineral

3%

Glass

Oil and Gas

3%

extraction

13%

Fabricated Metal

3%

Primary Metal

Food and Beverage

4%

10%

Sugar and Frozen

Chemical

Food

4%

7%

Industrial Natural Gas Demandby Sector in California (2000-2004)

Source: California Energy Commission

burner use in california
Burner Use in California
  • Petrochemical(53.3% of Natural Gas Usage)
    • Natural Draft Burners
    • Radiant Burners
    • Boiler Burners
    • Flare Burners
  • Food Processing(17.0% of Natural Gas Usage)
    • Radiant Burners
    • Linear Burners
  • Glass and Cement Industry (7.3% of Natural Gas Usage)
    • Regenerative Burner Systems
    • Oxy-Fuel Burners
    • Air-Staged Diffusion Mixed
burner use in california18
Burner Use in California
  • Metal Industry(7.2% of Natural Gas Usage)
    • Radiant Burners
    • Oxy-fuel Burners
    • High Velocity Burners
    • Boiler Burners
    • Regenerative Burner Systems
  • Paper and Textile Industry(7.2% of Natural Gas Usage)
    • Boiler Burners
    • Radiant Burners
  • Other Use(combined total 7.9% of Natural Gas Usage)
burner evaluation criteria
Burner Evaluation Criteria

Incomplete

Combustion

Flame

Temperature

Noise

Heat Flux

Emissions

Turndown

Ratio

Stability

Air-Fuel

Ratio

Exhaust

Temperature

Furnace

Temperature

Flame

Shape

Ignition

Limits

major affected parameters
Major Affected Parameters
  • Stability
    • Flashback, lift-off, blowout, pressure fluctuations
  • Flame shape
    • Flame length and diameter
  • Emissions
    • CO, NOx, UHC, VOC
  • Burner noise
  • Flame heat release
    • Flame and flue gas temperature, heat flux
  • Turndown ratio
burner evaluation traditional
Burner Evaluation - Traditional
  • Flue gas and furnace temperature
    • Suction pyrometer (aspirator)
    • Thermocouples
  • Stability
    • Air pressure/noise fluctuation
    • Visual lift-off & flashback (premixed)
  • Flame shape and length
    • Visual observation (template measurement)
  • Heat release
    • Optical heat flux probe
    • Heat balance calculations
  • Noise
    • Microphone
  • Emissions
    • Gas sampling to external analyzers
burner evaluation advanced
Burner Evaluation - Advanced
  • Exhaust and furnace temperature
    • Laser diagnostics
    • Thermal imaging
  • Stability
    • Optical sensor observation of flame stability
    • Acoustic measurements
  • Flame shape and length
    • Optical sensor monitor of flame shape
    • Composition monitoring of flame envelope (chemical length)
  • Emissions
    • Laser diagnostics (FT-IR)
    • Doping induced luminescence
  • Flame temperature
    • Laser diagnostics
sdg e socalgas service area
SDG&E/SoCalGas Service Area

Source: California Energy Commission

classification criteria
Diffusion Mixed

Non-Staged

Air Staged

Fuel Staged

Partial Pre-mixed

Non-Staged

Air Staged

Pre-Mixed

Non-Staged

Classification Criteria
  • Mixing Type
  • Fuel Type
  • Oxidizer Type
  • Draft Type
  • Heating Type
  • Burner Geometry
classification criteria28
Classification Criteria
  • Mixing Type
  • Fuel Type
  • Oxidizer Type
  • Draft Type
  • Heating Type
  • Burner Geometry
  • Gas
  • Liquid
  • Solid
  • Dual
classification criteria29
Classification Criteria
  • Mixing Type
  • Fuel Type
  • Oxidizer Type
  • Draft Type
  • Heating Type
  • Burner Geometry
  • Air
  • Oxygen
  • Oxygen Enriched Air
  • Preheated Air
classification criteria30
Classification Criteria
  • Mixing Type
  • Fuel Type
  • Oxidizer Type
  • Draft Type
  • Heating Type
  • Burner Geometry
  • Forced Draft
  • Natural Draft
  • Inspirated
  • Aspirated
classification criteria31
Classification Criteria
  • Mixing Type
  • Fuel Type
  • Oxidizer Type
  • Draft Type
  • Heating Type
  • Burner Geometry
  • Direct
  • Indirect
classification criteria32
Classification Criteria
  • Mixing Type
  • Fuel Type
  • Oxidizer Type
  • Draft Type
  • Heating Type
  • Burner Geometry
  • Round Nozzle
  • Rectangular Nozzle
  • Swirl
burner types
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
burner types35
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Radiant Wall
  • Thermal Radiation
  • Radiant Tube
burner types36
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Radiant Wall
    • Natural Draft
    • Forced Draft
      • Pre-mixed
      • Non-Premixed
  • Thermal Radiation
  • Radiant Tube
burner types37
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Radiant Wall
  • Thermal Radiation
    • Porous Ceramic
    • Ported Ceramic
    • Fiber Metal
    • Flame Impingement
    • Catalytic
    • Perforated Ceramic
    • Porous Refractory
    • Wire Mesh
  • Radiant Tube
burner types38
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Radiant Wall
  • Thermal Radiation
  • Radiant Tube
    • Non-Circulating
    • Recirculating
    • Forced Draft
    • Inspirating
burner types39
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Pre-mixed
  • Diffusion Mixed
  • Partially Pre-mixed
  • Air Staged
burner types40
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • One Box
  • Two Box
  • Rotary / Heat Wheel
  • Radiant Tube
burner types41
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Round Flame
  • Wall Fired Flat Flame
  • Radiant Wall
  • Flat Flame
burner types42
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Low NOx
  • Ultra Low NOx
  • Conventional
burner types43
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Low NOx
    • External Flue Gas Recirculation (EFGR)
    • Air Staged
    • Fuel Staged
    • Fuel Induced Recirculation
  • Ultra Low NOx
  • Conventional
burner types44
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Low NOx
  • Ultra Low NOx
    • Pre-mixed
    • Partially Premixed
    • Rapid Mix
    • Internal Flue Gas Recirculation
  • Conventional
burner types45
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Low NOx
  • Ultra Low NOx
  • Conventional
    • Swirl
    • Register
burner types46
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Duct
    • Linear Grid
    • Grid
  • Make-up Air
burner types47
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Air-Oxy Fuel
    • Concentric Pipe
    • Multiple Nozzle
    • Flat Flame
    • Staged
  • Oxy-Fuel
    • Polishing
    • Forehearth
burner types48
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Single Point
    • Non Assisted
    • Simple Steam Assisted
    • Advanced Steam Assisted
    • Low Pressure Air Assisted
  • Multi-point
  • Enclosed
burner types49
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Single Point
  • Multi-point
    • Non Assisted
    • Simple Steam Assisted
    • Advanced Steam Assisted
    • Low Pressure Air Assisted
  • Enclosed
burner types50
Burner Types
  • Radiant Burners
  • High Velocity Burners
  • Regenerative Burners
  • Natural Draft Burners
  • Boiler Burners
  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners
  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners
  • Flare Burners
  • Single Point
  • Multi-point
  • Enclosed
    • Non Assisted
    • Simple Steam Assisted
    • Advanced Steam Assisted
    • Low Pressure Air Assisted