Opener 8/13/10 • What are America’s five founding ideals, and why are they important? (List and explain) • Example: one of the ideals is “equality.” Equality is the ideal or situation in which all people are treated the same way and valued equally. It is important because throughout history, almost all societies had been divided into unequal groups, castes, or social classes.
Opener 8/13/10 • What are America’s five founding ideals, and why are they important? (List and explain) 1) Equality 2) Rights 3) Liberty 4) Opportunity 5) Democracy “Ideals are like stars,” observed Carl Schurz, a German American politician in the late 1800s. “You will not succeed in touching them with your hands, but like the seafaring man on the ocean desert of waters, you choose them as your guides, and, following them, you reach your destiny.”
What is government? Why do we have it? What form does it take? Why Government?
What Is Government? • Government is an institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies • Government must have power to make and carry out public policies. • Three types of power*: • Legislative • Executive • Judicial * Often outlined in a country’s constitution
Not States, but states. • The state • A body of people, living in a defined territory, organized politically (with a government) & with the power to make & enforce laws • Criteria: • Population • Territory • Sovereignty • Government
Why Do We Have Government? • United States – Our constitution answers this question: “We the people of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure the domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the generalWelfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.” Preamble to the U.S. Constitution
Why Do We Have Government? • The World– Basic roles of government: • Establish order= • Provide security= • Promote the common good=
What Form Does it Take? • Classifying Governments • How a state responds to the three basic roles of government helps to determine what type of government the state practices. • Democracy • Republic • Representative Democracy • Direct Democracy • Dictatorship • Autocracy • Oligarchy
What Form Does it Take? • Unitary Government • Centralized government; all powers held by the government belong to a single, central agency. • Federal Government • Division of powers; the powers of government are divided between a central government and several local governments • Confederate Government • An alliance of independent states; has the power to handle only those matters that the member states have assigned to it.
What Form Does it Take? • Relationship between Legislative and Executive Branches Political Scientists also classify governments based on the relationship between their legislative and executive agencies. • Presidential Government • Features a separation of powers between the executive and the legislature • Parliamentary Government • The executive is made up of the prime minister, or premier and that official’s cabinet. The prime minister and cabinet themselves are members of the legislative branch; this is a fused system of government
Exit Slip: 8/12/10 • In a democracy, explain how the government provides order, establishes security, and promotes the common good. **Answer this question in an “ORQ” format using complete sentences. Be sure to provide examples of ways the government does each of those things (i.e. explain = say why with specific details/information).