Chapter 5 Section 3
THE STRUGGLE FOR RATIFICATION: Problem: Rhode Island – boycotted Const. Convention Solution: After 9 states ratify, Const. in effect in those states Effect: Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island are last states to ratify DEBATE RAGES!!! TO RATIFY OR NOT!!!
The process • Each state held elections to a special convention who would either accept or reject the constitution • Bypassed the existing state legislatures which were already fearful of a reduction of state power • Federalists or supporters of ratification (Washington, Madison etc..) VS. Anti-Federalists or those opposed to ratification (Jefferson, Sam Adams)
FEDERALISTS V.S.ANTI-FEDERALISTS Anti-federalists: AGAINST RATIFICATION WHY: Suspect the elite, suspicious of tyranny WHO: Poor farmers, frontiersmen, states’ rights advocates Federalists: FOR RATIFICATION WHY: Stability and Strength needed to secure economy and the high seas WHO: Propertied classes, merchants, bankers
War of Words • Anti-Federalists: Letters from the Federal Farmer (Richard Henry Lee) addressed concerns about the rights that needed to be protected (press, religion etc..) The Federalist Papers: 85 Essays defending the Constitution (written by Madison, Hamilton, Jay) but published under the name Publius tried to explain the arguments for the new gov’t
…and the winner is…. • After promising to include a Bill of Rights 9 states ratified between December 1787 and June of 1788 (Deleware 1st) • Still need New York and Virginia • Madison and Washington eventually won in VA. (89-79) • Jay and Hamilton swung NY (30-27) • New government became a reality in 1789) • Rhode Island held out another year and a half but ratified in 1790
Bill of Rights The Bill of Rights is a compromise between the Federalists/Madison and the AntiFederalists/Jefferson. Why? (See page 141)
Which groups were not included in the rights and freedoms created by the Bill of rights and the Constitution?Women? Native Americans? Slaves?Why?