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ARRHENIUS ACID - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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ARRHENIUS ACID. Any compound that contains hydrogen and dissociates in aqueous solution to form H + ions. HNO 3 (aq) H + (aq) + NO 3 (aq). ¾. H. O. 2. ¾. ¾. ®. Nitric acid dissociates completely, as shown below:. ARRHENIUS BASE.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

ARRHENIUS ACID

Any compound that contains hydrogen and dissociates in aqueous solution to form H+ ions.

slide2

HNO3(aq) H+ (aq) + NO3 (aq)

¾

H

O

2

¾

¾

®

Nitric acid dissociates completely, as shown below:

slide3

ARRHENIUS BASE

Any compound that contains OH- ions and dissociates to produce OH- ions in aqueous solutions.

slide4

KOH (s) K+ (aq) + OH-(aq)

¾

H

O

2

¾

¾

®

Potassium hydroxide dissociates in water as shown in the following equation:

slide5

TYPES OF ACIDS

Monoprotic and polyprotic acids differ in relative number of ionizable hydrogen ions.

  • Monoprotic
  • HCl
  • HBr
  • HI
slide7

BRONSTED ACIDS AND BASES

A Bronsted acid is a proton (hydrogen ion) donor.

A Bronsted base is a proton (hydrogen ion) acceptor.

slide8

NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-

The hydrogen ion H+ actually exists only as the hydronium ion H3O+

slide9

PROPERTIES OF ACIDS

  • sour taste
  • turn blue litmus red
  • an electrolite
  • react with bases to form water and salt
  • react with metals and release hydrogen
slide10

PROPERTIES OF BASES

  • bitter taste.
  • electrolites.
  • slippery.
  • change red litmus blue.
  • react with acids to form water and salt.
slide11

Equivalents

One equivalent of an acid is equal to the quantity in grams that supplies one mole of protons.

slide12

One equivalent of a base is the quantity in grams that accepts one mole of protons, or supplies one mole of OH- ions.

Equivalents of solute

=

Normality

Liters of solution

slide13

+

-

1

mole

H

O

1

mole

OH

3

and

7

7

1

x

10

liters

water

1

x

10

liters

water

Ionization of Water (Kw)

Water ionizes only very slightly. The concentration of hydronium and hydroxide ions is:

slide14

-

+

-

-

7

7

1

x

10

moles

H

O

1

x

10

moles

OH

3

and

liter

H

O

liter

H

O

2

2

Or:

slide15

Using standard notation:

[H3O+] = 1x10-7 mol/L

[OH-] = 1x10-7 mol/L

slide16

The ionization constant for water is as follows:

Kw = [H3O+] x [OH-] = (1x10-7)2 = 1x10-14

Example: [H3O+] = .001 M or 1x10-3 M

\ [OH-] = 1x10-14 ¸ 1x10-3 = 1x10-11 M

slide17

pH

The pH of a solution is equal to the negative log of the hydronium concentration.

[H3O+] = 1x10-5 M

pH = - (-5) = 5 pOH = (14 - 5) = 9

slide18

If the pH of a solution is less than 7, it is considered to be acidic.

If the pH is greater than 7, the solution is considered basic.