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ACIDS Monoprotic (HNO3) Diprotic (H2SO4) Triprotic (H3PO4) Yield Hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solution BASES Forms Hydroxide ions (OH-) in aqueous solution Arrhenius Acids & Bases
ACIDS Donates a proton/hydrogen ion BASES Accept proton/hydrogen ion BRONSTED – LOWERY ACIDS
Acids • Tart/sour taste • Acid solutions are electrolytes (conduct electricity) • Cause indicators to change color • High concentrations of hydrogen ions • [H+] • pH 0 – 6.9
Bases • Bitter taste • Slippery feel • Aqueous solutions are electrolytes • Cause an indicator to change color • High hydroxide ion concentration • [OH-] • pH 7.1 – 14.0
What ions do acids produce in greater concentrations in a solution? What ions do bases produce in greater concentrations in a solution?
STRONG ACIDS • HF • HCl • HBr • HI • HNO3 • H2SO4 “STRONG” indicates the degree of dissociation!!! NOT the degree of concentration!!!
WEAK ACIDS • Acids that DO NOT 100% dissociate • REMINDERS: • Acids of VERY high concentrations (greater than 1M), will not 100% dissociate • ALL acids have SOME concentration of hydroxide ions….WHY??
STRONG BASES • GROUP I HYDROXIDES • LiOH - lithium hydroxide • NaOH - sodium hydroxide • KOH - potassium hydroxide • RbOH - rubidium hydroxide • CsOH - cesium hydroxide
STRONG BASES • GROUP II HYDROXIDES • *Ca(OH)2 - calcium hydroxide • *Sr(OH)2 - strontium hydroxide • *Ba(OH)2 - barium hydroxide • * These bases completely dissociate in solutions of 0.01 M or less. The other bases make solutions of 1.0 M and are 100% dissociated at that concentration. There are other strong bases than those listed, but they are not often encountered.
WEAK BASES • Bases that DO NOT 100% completely dissociate • REMINDERS: • Bases of VERY high concentrations (greater than 1M), will not 100% dissociate • ALL bases have SOME concentration of hydrogen ions….WHY??
Ionization Constant Example: Ammonia in water
Ionization Constant Example: Ionization of nitric acid
Ionization Constants: Ka, Kb, and Kw http://www.saskschools.ca/curr_content/chem30_05/5_acids_bases/acids2_2.htm • Ka • Kb • Kw
Ionization Constants: Ka, Kb, and Kw • A large value of Kameans there are many H+ ions in solution -in other words, a strong acid • A large Kb indicates many OH- ions -a strong base
Calculating pH/pOH • pH = -log [H+] • pOH = -log [OH-] • pH + pOH = 14 • [H+] = 10-pH • [OH-] = 10-pOH • [H+] [OH-] = 1 x 10-14
Warm-UpA 25.00 mL sample of a 0.5250 M H2SO4 solution is titrated with a NaOH solution using phenolphthalein as the indicator. It is found that 22.07 mL of the NaOH solution is needed to reach the endpoint of the titration. What is the molarity of the NaOH solution?