Diseases of the Respiratory System. Infections of the Respiratory tract. Most common entry point for infections Upper respiratory tract nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, mouth, throat Lower respiratory tract Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli in the lungs. Fig. 21.1a.
Clearance of particles
and organisms from the respiratory tract
Cilia and microvilli move
particles up to the throat
where they are swallowed.
migrate and engulf particles
and bacteria in the alveoli
deep in the lungs.
Common Cold- coughing, sneezing and sore throat. A cold can be caused by many different things such as different viruses and bacterial infections of the lining in the nose and throat.
Sinusitis- caused by viruses or bacteria in which the sinuses become swollen and irritated. The sinuses provide a moist air space around the nose, when they become inflammed you may notice a change in your voice. It is often by a stuffy, runny nose, pain or swelling in the eyes and cheekbones and pressure in the head
Influenza- also called the flu, is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. It can develop into pneumonia, which is a serious infection of the lungs.
Bacterial, viral or fungal infection can cause Inflammation of the lung with fluid filled alveoli
Causes-exposure to pollutants, cigarette smoke, virus, bacteria, harsh chemicals…
Treatment- requires long antibiotic treatment with “cocktail” of antibiotics because
of the resistance that develops.
Symptoms- breath and heart rate increase, body becomes stressed and fatigued.
Treatment- bronchodilators, corticosteroids, oxygen and antibiotics.