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Caribbean. Aruba. History First inhabitants were thought to be the Caquetíos Amerinds from the Arawak tribe (migrated from Venezuela) Europeans discovered it in August 1499 ( Amerigo Vespucci and Alonso de Ojeda) Colonized by Spain for over a century. Geography

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  1. Caribbean

  2. Aruba • History • First inhabitants were thought to be the CaquetíosAmerinds from the Arawak tribe (migrated from Venezuela) • Europeans discovered it in August 1499 (AmerigoVespucci and Alonso de Ojeda) • ColonizedbySpainforover a century • Geography • Generally a flat, riverless island • White, sandy beaches • Some rolling hills • To the east are two island territories • Isothermal temperature • Tropical marine climate

  3. Aruba cont. • Culture • Mixed culture • Dutch influences still seen • Celebrate Christmas and New Year • Important holiday of the Carnival • Similar to Mardi Gras and lasts for weeks • Places to visit • Fort Zoutman and King Willem III Tower • Numismatic Museum • California Point lighthouse • Chapel Of Alto Vista • Bushiribana Ruins • Arikok National Park • Andicuri • Natural Bridge • Bubali Bird Sanctuary

  4. Bahamas • History • Taino people migrated there from Hispaniola and Cuba during the 11th century AD • Became known as the Lucayans • About 30,000 or more Lucayans around in 1492 when Christopher Columbus traveled there • Lucayans wiped out with the arrival of the Spaniards due to exposure to new diseases • Small pox wiped out half of the populations in what is now known as the Bahamas • Geography • All islands are low and flat • Consists of 29 islands • Climate is subtropical to tropical • Moderated significantly by the waters of the Gulf Stream • Especially during the winter

  5. Bahamas cont. • Culture • Basketry made from palm fronds is popular on the outer islands • Palm fronds are referred to as “straw” and is plaited into hats, bags, and other popular tourist items • “Straw” is also used for voodoo dolls; an idea that originated from American imagination and not historical facts • Obeah is a type of magic that originated from West Africa • It is illegal in Bahamas and punishable by law, but is practiced on some of the Family-Islands (outer islands) • Junkanoo: traditional African street parade of music, dance, and art held in Nassau (and a few other settlements) every Boxing Day, New Year's Day • Also used to celebrate other holidays and events • Regattas: important social events in many family island settlements • One or more days of sailing by old-fashion work boats and an onshore festival • Places to visit • Eleuthera • Nassau • Abaco National Park • Little Inagua • Lucayan National Park • Pelican Cays Land and Sea Park

  6. Barbados • History • Indigenous peoples were Arawakan-speaking tribes • Called it Ichirouganaim, which roughly translated means “Red Land with White Teeth” • Portuguese were first Europeans to arrive there when they were on their way to Brazil • They named it Barbados, which means “Bearded One” • First English settlers in 1627-1628 • Geography • Easternmost island in the Lesser Antilles • Central highland region • Composed of coral • Terraces in the west, incline in east • Moderate tropical climate with a wet season(June-November) and a dry season(December-May)

  7. Barbados cont. • Culture • British influences • West African influenes • Crop Over festival • Carnival like cultural event • Most citizens are Christian • Music is an important part of the culture • Places to visit • Turner Hall Woods • Andromeda Botanic Gardens • St.John’s Parish Church • Codrington College • Farley Hill National • St.Nicholas Abbey • Morgan Lewis Sugar Mill

  8. Cayman Islands • History • Discovered by Christopher Columbus on May 10, 1503 • Named it La Tortuga for the large amount of turtles there • First recorded English visitor was Sir Francis Drake in 1586 • Remained largely uninhabited until 17th century • First permanent settlement recorded in 1661 with Isaac Bodden • English took under control with Jamaica in 1670 with the Treaty of Madrid • Permanent settlement began in 1730s • Geography • They are the peaks of a massive underwater ridge • Cayman Ridge • South of Cuba, West of Jamaica • Two “Sister Islands:” Cayman Brac and Little Cayman • All three formed by large coral heads that covered submerged ice peaks • Tropical marine climate

  9. Cayman Islands cont. • Culture • British, North American, and Jamaican influences • Other than these three dominant influences, there are 113 different nationalities on the three islands • Christianity is the most practiced religion due to the American and European culture influences • Indigenous peoples carry an air of independence with them • Places to visit • Georgetown • Grand cayman • Seven Mile Beach

  10. Curacao • History • Arawak Amerindians were the original inhabitants • First Europeans (from Spain) arrived in 1499 • Occupied by Dutch in 1634 • Commerce and shipping became the most important economic activities • Center for Atlantic Slave Trade in 1662 • Major slave revolt in 1795 • Geography • Transcontinental island • Semiarid climate • Dry season from January to September • Wet season from October to December • There are salt marshes • Coral reefs • Seafloor drops steeply within a few hundred feet of the shore (drop-off known as “blue edge”)

  11. Curacao cont. • Culture • Polyglot society • Papiamentu, Dutch, English, and Spanish are the widely spoken languages • 85% speak Papiamentu • Education had been predominantly in Spanish until the late 19th century • Dutch made sole language in education during the 20th century • Places to visit • Quenn Emma Bridge • Otrobanda • Willemstad • Curacao Dolphin Academy • Curacao Ostrich and Game Farm • Kura Hulanda Museum • Boca Tabla • Playa Kalki • Fort Nassau • Maritime Museum • Mikve Israel-Emanuel Synagogue

  12. Dominican Republic • History • Arawakan-speaking Taínos moved there in 650 AD • Spanish arrived in 1492 • Taínos eventually fought back against Spanish • France gained control of the island in 1795captured Santo Domingo in 1801 • Toussaint Louverture and his followers expelled French from Santo Domingo in 1804 • Became independent on November 30, 1824 • Geography • Shares island with Haiti at roughly a 2:1 ratio • Many small offshore cays • Four important mountain ranges • Cordillera Septentrional • Cordillera Central • Sierra de Neiba • Sierra de Bahoruco • Llano Costero del Caribe is the largest plain in the Dominican Republic • Tropical climate

  13. Dominican Republic cont. • Culture • Blend of the Spanish colonists, African slaves, and Taíno natives • Most prominent in food, family structure, religion, and music • Known for its music style of merengue • Baseball is the most popular sport • Has six teams • Season goes from October to January • Has the most amount of MLB players after the United States • Places to visit • Bavaro and Punta Cana • Casa de Campo (La Romana) • Playa Dorada, Puerto Plata and Cabarete • La Península de Samaná • Barahona and Santo Domingo • CapCana Resorts

  14. Haiti • History • Inhabited by Taíno Indians before Europeans arrived • Before Christopher Columbus arrived, it was divided into six different caciquedoms (tributary kingdoms) • Christopher Columbus landed there on December 5, 1492 • Spaniards exploited the island for gold • Mined by locals, who were forced to by the Spanish • Geography • Western part of Hispaniola • Rugged mountains • Small coastal plains • River valleys • Northern region: • Massif du Nord • Plaine du Nord • Southern region: • Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

  15. Haiti cont. • Culture • French, African, and native Taíno cultures, with some influences from Spanish • European and African elements dominate • Customs are a blend of indigenous cultural beliefs • Music influenced by European colonial ties and African migration (slavery) • Places to visit • Port-au-Prince • La Souvenance • Cathedrale de Port-au-Prince • Musée d'Art Haïtien du Collège St. Pierre • Bassins Bleu • EtangSaumatre • Parc National Historique La Citadelle • Cap-Haitien • MuséeNationale • CitadelleLaferrière

  16. Jamaica • History • Arawak and Taino peoples settled there from South American between 4000 and 1000 BC • Christopher Columbus arrived there in 1494 • At the time there were over 200 villages ruled by caciques • English took over Spanish fort in 1655 • Slaves fled to the mountains when Spanish released them after English took over • Geography • Third largest island in Caribbean • Inland are the Blue Mountains and they are surrounded by a narrow coastal plain • Tropical climate, though it is more temperate in the higher inland regions

  17. Jamaica cont. • Culture • Strong global presence • Influencial music: • Reggae • Ska • Mento • Rocksteady • Dub • Dancehall • Ragga • Helped development of punk rock and American rap • Most popular local sport is cricket, but they excel in Track and Field • Places to visit • Chukka Adventure Tours • Bob Marley's Nine Miles • Dunn's River Falls • Dolphin Cove Attraction • Negril's day and Sunset Tour

  18. Leeward Islands, French (St. Martin) • History • Arawak Indians settled there in 800 AD from South America • Columbus claimed for Spain on November 11, 1493 • French began cultivating tobacco in 1624 • Divided into French and Dutch zones on March 23, 1648 • English ruled from 1690-1699 • French ruled from 1699-1702 • Dutch ruled from 1703-1717 • Geography • Hill chains • No rivers • Dry forests

  19. Leeward Islands, French (St. Martin) cont. • Culture • Festive nightlife • English is the most commonly spoken language, as well as a local dialect • French, Dutch, and English are the official languages • Places to visit • TijonParfumerie & Boutique • Swaliga Charters • Captain Alan's Three Island Snorkeling Adventure • Random Wind • Maho Beach • Scuba Zen • The ButterflyFarm (La Ferme des Papillons) • Orient Beach • Loterie Farm • Dawn Beach

  20. Martinique • History • Discovered by Columbus in 1493 • Claimed by French in 1635 • Produced large amounts of sugar cane • Geography • North part of the island is mountainous and lushly salted • South is mostly beaches

  21. Martinique cont. • Culture • Mix of French and Caribbean influences • French is the official language • Many people speak Martiniquan Creole • Most inhabitants are descendants from African slaves • Cuisine mixes elements from African, French, Carib Amerindian and South Asian foods • Places to visit • Fort-de-France • La Savanne • St Pierre • Le Carbet • The South (beaches)

  22. Montserrat • History • Arawak and Carib peoples lived there before Columbus claimed it in 1493 • Fell under English control in 1632 • Briefly captured by France in 1782 due to the American Revolutionary War • Slavery abolished in 1834 • From 1871-1958 it was considered a part of the Federal Colony of the Leeward Islands • Geography • East southeast of Puerto Rico and southwest of Antigua • Island is growing due to volcanic depositson southeast coast • Dramatic rock-faced cliffs • Beaches • Coves • Two islets • Little Redonda and Virgin • Statue Rock

  23. Montserrat cont. • Culture • Cricket is a popular sport • Has its own FIFA Affiliated football team • Places to visit • Green Monkey Dive Shop • Soufriere Hills Volcano • Montserrat Volcano Observatory • Jack Boy Hill Viewing Facility • Oriole Walkway Trail • Cot Trail • Rendezvous Beach • Oriole Complex

  24. Puerto Rico • History • History is not well known from before Columbus arrived there • First comprehensive historical book was written in 1786 by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra • When Columbus arrived, the islandwasinhabitedby the Taínos • Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista for Saint John the Baptist • Geography • Consists of the main island and various smaller islands • Only two of the smaller islands are inhabited year round • Composed of Cretaceous to Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks

  25. Puerto Rico cont. • Culture • Unique mix of Africans, Taíno, Spanish, and North American cultures • Catholic religion is the majority of the cultural values and traditions • Culture centers on the influence of music • Places to visit • CaboRojo Lighthouse • Guajataca • Gilligan's Island • Vieques Island • San Juan • El Yunque National Forest • Camuy Caves Park • Ponce

  26. St. Kitts & Nevis • History • Was settled by Native Americans five thousand years before Europeans arrived • Discovered by Columbus in 1493 • French Huguenots established a settlement in 1538, but it was destroyed • English established a settlement in 1623 • Nevis colonized in 1628 by English from St. Kitts • Geography • Two main islands • Islands are of volcanic origin • Large central peaks covered by tropical rainforests • Terrain is flatter out by the coasts

  27. St. Kitts & Nevis cont. • Culture • Known for musical celebrations • Cricket is the common sport • They have a football team • Billiard Federation • Places to visit • Brimstone Hill • Sandy Bay Beach • Basseterre • Frigate Bay Beach • Plantations

  28. St. Lucia • History • Europeans arrived there between 1492 and 1502 • Was first settled by the French • After British took control, Africans were imported as slaves • Many natives died due to the foreign diseases Europeans brought over • Smallpox • Measles • British secured island in 1814 • Geography • Made of volcanic material • Much more mountainous than any other Caribbean island • Tropical climate • Northeast trade winds • Dry season from December 1 to May 31 • Wet season from June 1 to November 30

  29. St. Lucia cont. • Culture • Influenced by African, East Indian, French, and English heritage • Carnival before Lent • Soca, salsa, zumba and reggae music • Places to visit • Pigeon Island National Park • AnseChastanet Beach and Reef • Errard Plantation • Fregate Island Nature Reserve • Maria Islands Nature Reserve • AnseMamin • St. Lucia Rain Forest

  30. St. Maarten (Netherlands Antilles) • History • Columbus claimed it as a Spanish territory, but he never actually landed there • Since Spanish did not settle there, the French and Dutch did • Dutch founded settlements there in 1631 • Captured from the Dutch by the Spanish in 1633 • Spanish deserted the island in 1648 • Geography • Lowlands • Tropical climate • Two island groups

  31. St. Maarten (Netherlands Antilles) cont. • Culture • Dutch and English are the official languages • English-based Creole dialect also spoken • Different influences apparent in languages spoken (European and West African influences) • Places to visit • Philipsburg • Marigot • Grand Case • Orient Bay • Maho Bay • Mullet Bay • Loterie Farm

  32. St. Vincent & Deps. (Baquia, Canouan Grenadines) • History • Discovered by Columbus in 1498 on his third expedition • Discovered on January 22nd, which was a holiday celebrating the patron saint of Portugal • It has been said that this is wrong, and that Columbus was nowhere near the island on that date • Geography • 18 miles long, 11 miles wide • Dominated by an active volcano • Erupted violently in 1812 and 1902 • Most recent was on April 13, 1979 • Tropical humid • Has both black sand and white sand beaches

  33. St. Vincent & Deps. (Baquia, Canouan Grenadines) cont. • Culture • Practices and beliefs of the Caribs and West African descendants • Music is a major part of the culture • Speak English and Venetian Creole • Places to visit • The Mesopotamia/Marriaqua Valley • Montreal Gardens • La Soufriere • Trinity Falls • The Botanical Gardens • Vermont Nature Trail • Owia Salt Pond • The Cathedral of the Assumption • Black Point Tunnel • Fort Charlotte

  34. Turks & Caicos Islands • History • Named after indigenous Turk's Head "fez" cactus and the Lucayan term "cayahico", meaning string of islands • First inhabitants were Arawakan-speaking Taíno people that traveled over from Hispaniola • Spanish began capturing the natives in 1492 and wiped out indigenous population • First documented European sighting was in 1512 • Geography • Geographically contiguous to the Bahamas, but is a separate entity • Primarily low, flat limestone • Extensive marshes and mangrove swamps • Weather is usually sunny and relatively dry • Limited fresh water resources

  35. Turks & Caicos Islands cont. • Culture • Most of the populations today are descendants of the African slaves that were brought over • Many immigrants from Haiti and Dominican Republic • Traditional music, folklore and sisal weaving are still major parts of the culture • Places to visit • National Parks • Turks and Caicos Museum • The Hole • Iguana Island • Caicos Conch Farm • The Cheshire Hall Plantation

  36. Virgin Islands, US • History • Originally inhabited by Ciboney, Carib, and Arawaks • Named by Columbus for Saint Ursula and her followers during his 1493 voyage • Danish West India Company settled in St. Thomas in 1672, St. John in 1694, and purchased St. Croix in 1733 • Became royal Danish colonies in 1754 • Geography • West of British Virgin Islands • White, sandy beaches • Volcanic origin • Hilly • Coral reefs • St. Croix has flatter terrain than the others • Saint Thomas, Saint John, Saint Croix, and Water Island are the main islands

  37. Virgin Islands, US cont. • Culture • Both Caribbean and American • Calypso music, reggae, American pop, salsa, blues, oldies, rock and roll, and many other music genres • Many of the people are Baptist or Catholic • Superstitions and storytelling are popular • Places to visit • Trunk Bay • Charlotte Amalie • Coki Beach • Fort Christian • Haagensen House • Cinnamon Bay • Annaberg • Catherineburg • The Reef Bay Sugar Mill

  38. Virgin Islands, British • History • First settled by Arawak that migrated from South America around 100 BC • Displaced in 15th century by the Caribs • First European sighting in 1493 by Columbus on his second voyage • Spanish claimed the islands in 16th century • English, Dutch, French, Spanish and Danish all took turns with controlling the islands • Geography • East of U.S. Virgin Islands • of Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Anegada, and Jost Van Dyke are the main islands • There are 56 other smaller islands • North Atlantic Ocean to the north and Caribbean Sea to the south • Most are of volcanic origin and are hilly • Tropical climate

  39. Virgin Islands, British cont. • Culture • Traditional music is called fungi after a local cornmeal dish • Fusion of European and African music • Primary language that is spoken is English with a quick creole accent • Places to visit • Apple Bay • Brewer's Bay • Cane Garden Bay •   Josiah's Bay • Elizabeth Beach • Long Bay (East) • Callwood Distillery • The Dungeon • Fort Burt • Fort Recovery • Josiah's Bay Plantation

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