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Experiences and Challenges in Campaign Style Deployments using Wireless Sensor Networks Jayant Gupchup † , Scott Pitz * , Douglas Carlson † , Chih-Han Chang * , Michael Bernard * , Andreas Terzis † , Alex Szalay ± , Katalin Szlavecz *

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Experiences and Challenges

in Campaign Style Deployments

using Wireless Sensor Networks

Jayant Gupchup†, Scott Pitz*, Douglas Carlson† ,

Chih-Han Chang*, Michael Bernard*,

Andreas Terzis†, Alex Szalay±, Katalin Szlavecz*

Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University†

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University±

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University*

campaign style deployment
Campaign Style Deployment

Quito

Jayant Gupchup

requirements constraints
Requirements / Constraints

Jayant Gupchup

  • No access to line power or internet
  • Collect data at a high rate (e.g. 30s)
    • Deployment order of days to weeks
  • Researchers require access to data in field
a typical sensor network
A Typical Sensor Network

Stable

Storage

Gateway/

Basestation

…….

7 Ah

differences challenges
Differences / Challenges

Power ~ 4W

Jayant Gupchup

  • On-site decisions
  • Ad hoc hardware reconfigurations
  • Dealing with high data rates in the field (using a netbook)
  • Use of high power sensors
    • Vaisala CO2 sensors
    • Driven by a car battery
deployment details i
Deployment Details - I

Jayant Gupchup

  • Location : Quito, Ecuador
  • Goal :

Understand tropical soil respiration

  • Duration : 16 days
deployment details ii
Deployment Details -II

Jayant Gupchup

  • 30s Sampling Interval
  • Data retrieved over the air using a netbook
  • 20 Sampling locations
    • 12 Soil CO2
    • 8 Soil Temperature & Moisture
  • Each CO2 Location
    • 3 depths (12 locations, 3 depths = 36 sensors)
    • Vaisala GMT 220 Series
    • CO2 Powered by 12 V / 45 Ah Car Battery
a co 2 set up
A CO2 Set-Up

3 m

3 m

3 m

Jayant Gupchup

under the hood
Under The Hood

Antenna

TelosB Mote

Mote Battery

CO2 Sensor

Power Connector

CO2 Sensors

Jayant Gupchup

power consumption
Power Consumption

Jayant Gupchup

  • Lead acid car batteries 12V / 45Ah
  • Each battery serviced 9 CO2 sensors
  • Total current draw :1A
  • Lasted 36 hours after recharge
power cycling motivation
Power Cycling Motivation

Jayant Gupchup

  • Batteries needed replacement/recharged every other day
  • Carried every other day for ~ 3 Km
  • 12V/40Ah car battery weighs 14Kg
  • Power Cycling!
    • Warm up time: 15 min
some data
Some Data

Power Loss

Sensors lack range

Jayant Gupchup

ad hoc replacements
Ad Hoc Replacements

Jayant Gupchup

  • At 11 locations, sensors lacked range to sense the phenomenon
  • Distribution of CO2 hardware
    • 10000 ppm : 26
    • 20000 ppm : 12
    • 30000 ppm : 3
    • 100000 ppm : 3
  • Researchers placed sensors initially
    • Reconfigured sensors if range was not good enough
  • Final data calibration requires accurate metadata:
    • sensor type and date of reconfiguration
  • Motivates need for self-Identifying sensors (Dallas 1-wire protocol)
high data rates
High Data Rates

Jayant Gupchup

  • Decisions in field are driven by the data
  • Researchers used netbook to download and view data
  • 10 days of 30s sampling: ~ 576000 rows
    • Spreadsheet and word processing software unable to handle this volume
    • Researchers stopped looking
  • Downsample: Provide low-resolution “view” in the field
system performance
System Performance

Automated parts from existing system worked well.

Jayant Gupchup

conclusions
Conclusions

Jayant Gupchup

  • WSN technology is mature enough to be driven by scientists
  • Challenges / Lessons Learned
    • Power cycling for high power sensors
    • Self-Identifying sensor design
    • Researchers require low-resolution data in field
credit
Credit

Jayant Gupchup

NSF- MIRTHE, NSF- IDBR

Microsoft Research

Betty and Gordon Moore Foundation

questions
Questions

Jayant Gupchup