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Arguments for the Existence of God. Is there a God? . The Cosmological Argument God is the only adequate explanation for the existence of the universe. The Teleological Argument All the intricate design in the universe argues for a purposeful first cause. The Anthropic Principle

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is there a god
Is there a God?
  • The Cosmological Argument
    • God is the only adequate explanation for the existence of the universe.
  • The Teleological Argument
    • All the intricate design in the universe argues for a purposeful first cause.
  • The Anthropic Principle
    • The universe seems fine-tuned for human life.
  • The Moral Argument
    • The sense of moral obligation all possess points to a Moral Lawgiver.
  • The Argument from Religious Experience
    • Even if only one person has had a genuine experience with the Divine, the Divine must exist.
the cosmological argument

The Cosmological Argument

Arguments for the Existence of God

leibniz s cosmological argument
Leibniz’s Cosmological Argument
  • 1. Everything that exists has an explanation of its existence.
    • It is either necessary (its own explanation) or has an external cause.
  • 2. If the universe has an explanation of its existence, that explanation is God.
    • God by definition is self-existent, independent, and necessary.
  • 3. The universe exists.
  • 4. The universe has an explanation of its existence.
    • It is not self-existent or necessary.
  • 5. Therefore the explanation of the universe is God.
the cosmological argument pt 1
The Cosmological Argument (pt. 1)
  • Anything that exists must have an explanation for its existence.
  • The universe exists.
  • Therefore the universe must have an explanation for its existence.
the cosmological argument pt 2
The Cosmological Argument (pt. 2)
  • One’s existence can be necessary (thus one can be self-existent, and be its own explanation) or it can be explained by an external cause.
  • The universe is not self-existent, or necessary.
  • The universe can only be explained by an external cause.
the cosmological argument pt 3
The Cosmological Argument (pt. 3)
  • The external cause of the universe must be self-existent.
  • God by definition is self-existent and necessary (he couldn’t not exist).
  • Therefore, God is an adequate explanation for the universe.
the kalam cosmological argument
The Kalam Cosmological Argument
  • 1. Whatever begins to exist has a cause.
  • 2. The universe began to exist.
  • 3. Therefore, the universe has a cause.
the kalam cosmological argument1
The Kalam Cosmological Argument
  • Premise 1: Whatever Begins to Exist has a Cause
    • Something cannot come from nothing.
      • A vacuum is not nothing.
    • If something can come into being from nothing, then why doesn’t anything and everything come from nothing?
    • Scientifically, premise 1 is constantly verified and never falsified. Common experience also confirms the truth of premise 1.
the kalam argument
The Kalam Argument
  • Premise 2: The universe began to exist.
    • If the universe always existed, then an (actually) infinite number of past events occurred prior to today. But that is impossible, since an infinite number could never be reached (in actuality).
    • You can’t pass through an infinite number of elements one at a time.
      • If you can’t count to infinity, then you can’t down from infinity.
    • The expansion of the universe points to a beginning.
      • The beginning of the universe is also the beginning of time.
    • The second law of thermodynamics
      • Given enough time, all the energy in the universe will spread itself out evenly. The universe will experience a “heat death.” If the universe were eternal, why are we not already in this state of equilibrium?
the kalam argument1
The Kalam Argument
  • Premise 3: Therefore the universe has a Cause.
    • On the basis of both philosophical and scientific grounds, we know that the universe has a beginning. Since anything with a beginning has a cause, the universe has a cause.
    • The universe cannot be self-caused.
    • The universe must have a transcendent cause.
    • The cause must be uncaused because an infinite series of causes is impossible.
    • The cause must be immaterial, non-physical, and unimaginably powerful.
    • The cause must be personal.
why a personal first cause
Why a Personal First Cause
  • Only a Mind could be immaterial, non-physical, transcendent, unimaginably powerful.
  • A personal cause is the only way to explain how a timeless cause can produce a temporal effect (beginning of the universe). Without a will, there would be no permanent cause without a permanent effect.
  • A personal being with freedom of the will could bring about something spontaneous and new, such as the creation of the universe.
  • This personal, powerful, timeless, necessary, self-existent First Cause is the God of Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.