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Society. People who interact in a defined territory and share a culture. Sociocultural Evolution. Lenski argued that changes occur as societies gain more technology (p.90). Hunting & Gathering Societies. Use simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation. Generally live in small groups

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society

Society

People who interact in a defined territory and share a culture

sociocultural evolution

Sociocultural Evolution

Lenski argued that changes occur as societies gain more technology (p.90)

hunting gathering societies
Hunting & Gathering Societies
  • Use simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation.
  • Generally live in small groups
  • Often nomadic
  • Women often responsible for the majority of work
horticultural and pastoral societies
Horticultural and Pastoral Societies
  • Horticulture refers to the use of hand tools to raise crops.
  • Adopted by those who lived in fertile areas
  • Simple tools might include a hoe and digging stick
horticultural and pastoral societies1
Horticultural and Pastoral Societies
  • Pastoralism is the domestication of animals
  • Adopted by those who lived in dry or mountainous areas
horticultural and pastoral societies2
Horticultural and Pastoral Societies
  • First time societies are able to have a surplus
  • Not everyone must work to provide food
  • Specialization occurs – trades, crafts, religion
agrarian societies
Agrarian Societies
  • Agriculture is large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources. (p. 92)
  • “The Dawn of Civilization”
  • Could farm larger areas and create larger surpluses
agrarian societies1
Agrarian Societies
  • Even greater specialization
  • Money replaced barter system
  • Men became socially dominant
  • More life choices, hence great variation between agricultural societies
industrial societies
Industrial Societies
  • Industrialization is the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive machinery. (p. 94)
  • Gave people the power to change the environment
  • Change came faster than any other time in history
industrial societies1
Industrial Societies
  • Took people out of the home, thus loosening familial bonds
  • Provide schooling for more people and greater political rights