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My Experiences. Teaching Career. Industry Career. Learning Through Stories. Learning through stories is an assessment toll used to describe a child’s learning process and is also a way of documenting that learning. Learning through stories capture the context of the

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My Experiences

Teaching Career

Industry Career


Learning Through Stories

Learning through stories is an assessment toll used to

describe a child’s learning process and is also a way

of documenting that learning.

Learning through stories capture the context of the

learning environment that appears to be enabling or

constraining learning.

National Childcare Accreditation Council

Learning through stories can be used as a springboard

for learning in different curriculum areas at primary

levels and through collaboration with different

departments at secondary levels.

Dr. Pado-EDTEG


Learning Theories andInstructional Strategies Matrix

from George Mason UniversityInstructional Technology Program


Why use stories?

√Storybooks can enrich the students’ learning experiences

√ Stories are motivating, fun and exercise the imagination with the

child’s real world.

√ Listening to stories in class is a shared social experience.

√ Stories allows the teacher to introduce or revise new vocabulary and

sentence structures by exposing the children to language in varied,

memorable and familiar contexts, which will enrich their thinking

and gradually enter their own speech.

√ Stories also “develop the different types of ‘intelligences’.

Ellis and Brewster (1991)


Why Four-Pronged Approach

The Four-Pronged Approach to Reading, pioneered by the late Dr. BasilisaManhit of the UP College of Education, is one that aims to develop a genuine love for reading, critical thinking, mastery of the structures of the (Filipino/English) language (now also named GOLD or Oral and Grammar Development), and transfer stage. The philosophical foundations of the pronged long approach are the following: literature-based, holistic, and places emphasis on the process of transfer.

This approach has evolved through years with a consistent use by the teachers of the University of the Philippines Integrated School Kindergarten to Grade II (U.P.I.S. K-2) and with the input of the other members of the faculty of the Reading Education Area of the same university.

RaidisLaudiano, M.A., UP Diliman, 2007


How Does it Work? Strategies of Four-Pronged Approach

  • Prong 1: Genuine Love for Reading
  • The first prong aims to immerse the child in literature and develop a deep and
  • lasting love for reading. It activates the children’s prior knowledge and arouse their interest and provide purpose for reading the story.
  • Pre-reading Activities
  • Unlocking of Difficulties:
  • ☺ Unlock important key words, phrases, idiomatic expressions, or setting the
  • story
  • ☺ Unlock through: Realia Context clues
  • Bring real object Actions
  • Pictures & drawings/maps Demonstrate

☺To unlocked words it depends on the level of the students (private /public

  • schools).
  • ☺Remember that it is important to use the child’s context and experiences
  • when unlocking new words.
  • ☺Limit words to be unlocked to 3-5 (for young learners) and
  • 5-7(for older learners).
  • ☺Post unlocked words after word is unlocked.
  • ☺Use new words in ordinary, everyday conversation.
  • ☺Have the new words visible in a certain corner of the classroom.

To activate prior knowledge:

  • Motivation – activates background knowledge and arouses their interests
  • Example:
  • Motivation Question:
  • Have you seen a colored mice?
  • Look at the ones in the picture; how many do you see?
  • What color are they?
  • Other Prereading Activities: Prediction Chart, KWL Chart, Knowledge Chart
  • Motive Question – provides direction and purpose for reading
  • What do you think will happen to these seven mice why they became blind?

Semantic web



Other Prereading Activities

Prediction Chart

Knowledge Chart

KWL Chart


During Reading Activities:

What the teacher will do during reading activities?

☺Teacher sits higher than the children

☺Put the book on the stand


☺Show the book cover. Ask:

  • What do you see on the cover?
  • Can you point the title of the story?
  • Can you read the title?
  • The story was written by_____________.
  • The illustrator of the book is _____________.
  • The birthday of the book is on _______________.

☺Flip the pages until you reach the beginning of the story.

☺Track the storyline as you read.

☺Ask questions occasionally.

☺Vary your tone, pitch and voice as you tell the story.

☺Pause at a certain points to internalize the story.

☺Use puppetry and background music.

☺Minimize the gestures.

☺Let the children join in with you read repetitive lines.

☺Engage the kids in movements. Let them act out something or say

something given a cue.


Prong 2: Critical Thinking

  • Post Reading Activities
  • This discussion should succeed in imparting the message of the story. The children arrive this on their own pace of realization guided by the questions of the teacher. The children are trained to reflect the story. Creative exercises may follow to elevate the reading/listening activity to a more aesthetic level when they can interpret the story purely on their own.
  • Engagement Activities during Post Reading Activities could be:
  • ☺Cooperative/Group Activities (the activities are direct responses to the story)
  • ☺Discussion of the story (through skilful questioning, the teacher develops the
  • children’s critical thinking)
  • ☺Enrichment Activities (the activities go beyond but related to the stories)
  • ☺Integration with Other Subject Area (the story is used as a springboard in
  • introducing concepts/skills in other subject areas).

Prong 3: Grammar and Oral Language Development

  • Through this method the teacher tell the students what the lesson is all about.
  • Be explicit about what the skill is, what it for is and when it is useful. Vocabulary is developed, listening comprehension is honed, and a skill is applied. Teacher teaches the correct grammar and exposed children to books.
  • Using explicit instruction method:
  • Presentation Lesson/Introduction
  • Teacher Modeling/Generalization
  • Guided Practice/Presentation Exercises
  • Application
  • Independent Practice (in groups: whole class/small group)

Prong 4: Transfer Stage

  • This prong is also plan and implemented as systematically as the three prongs. This is the prong where reading readiness activities are given to the students. This stage develops phonemic awareness, decoding, and encoding skills.
  • The Fuller Approach is use as a guide for the sequence of teaching the phonemes. In Filipino, the Marungko Approach provides the structure.
  • Materials could be: worksheets, writing tablets, charts, and other materials of appropriate level.

Felicitas E. Pado, Ph.D.