Sustaining India’s Food and Nutritional Security: Challenges and Opportunities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Sustaining India’s Food and Nutritional Security: Challenges and Opportunities

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  1. Sustaining India’s Food and Nutritional Security: Challenges and Opportunities T. Mohapatra

  2. Indian Agriculture Supports • 17.6% of world human population • 15% of world animal population with • 4.2% of world's water • 2.4% of world land area

  3. Indian Agriculture: A Saga of Success From “Ship to Mouth” situation in 1950s to Food Security Act 2013 (From shortage to surplus)

  4. Science-led Agricultural Revolution in India

  5. Indian Agriculture: Production Status

  6. Agro-export: Basmati Example Triennial Total Basmati Export and Earning % increase in value=14.50 % increase in volume=10.02 Pusa Basmati 1121 to total Basmati during 2012-16 Area : 71.4% Production : 72.8 % Forex earning : ~Rs. 19,000 crores (annually)

  7. Progressive improvement in grain and cooking quality in Basmati rice • Basmati 370 Pusa Basmati 1 Pusa Basmati 1121 Pusa Basmati 1509 • Pusa 1121 • Pusa Basmati 1 • Taraori Basmati • 1930 1989 2003 2013

  8. Rice Production and Yield

  9. Spread of landmark variety of Wheat : HD 2967 71.1 q/ha • Released for NWPZ and subsequently for NEPZ • A replacement of established and popular wheat variety PBW 343 • Acreage during 2012-13 was about 1.5 million ha, which increased to 5.0 million ha in 2013-14 • Highest ever and unprecedented indent of breeder seed received in 2016-17 for 3080 q, which can cover around 10 million ha area. This is a record for any variety • Licensed to about 200 private seed companies for fast spread • A record of licensing of a single food grain variety under MoU • Has got a very high breeder seed indent

  10. Demand is driven by population growth and land availability More from Less for More… World Population 2030 >8 billion People fed per hectare(2.47 acres = 1 hectare) 20056.5 billion 2030>5 people 2005>4 people 19602 people 19502.5 billion

  11. Meeting 2050’s FoodDemand • Freezeagriculture´sfootprint • Crops- roughlythesize of South America • Livestock – roughlythesize of Africa • Avoidingfurtherdeforestationmust be a top priority Grow more onexistingfarmland • Increasingyieldsonlessproductivefarmlands (yield gaps) • Precisionfarmingsystem Source: NGS 2014

  12. Pressures on Earth: We Are Now Living Beyond Earth’s Limits[WWF “Living Planet Report 2006”] Three Ecological Footprint Scenarios, to 2100 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 No. of Planet Earths needed to meet human demands Moderate ‘business as usual’ (to 2050) Ecological Footprint, 1961-2003 Slow shift in economic and social practices Rapid transition to environmental sustainability No. of Planet Earths available 1961 2003 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 Year Source: World Wildlife Fund, 2006 See also Wackernagel et al, PNAS, 2002

  13. World Map of the Global Climate Risk Index, 2018 • Climate impacts on food security • Average decline in yields of 8 major crops across Africa and South Asia • Marine fisheries to be affected • Increased fisheries yield in higher latitudes

  14. Global Food Insecurity Index

  15. Geographical pattern of stunting in children under age five on a country basis

  16. Hidden Hunger and Malnutrition Children Underweight & Undernourishment in Total Population (2011-13) • >70% Indian population consume <50% of the RDA of micronutrient • 50% children under age of 3 years are under weight, 20% of them are severely malnourished • 80% women of reproductive age suffer Fe deficiency anemia • 57% women and children suffer with vitamin A deficiency, although blindness due to vitamin A deficiency has been eliminated • 17.2% men and 19.2% women are suffering with obesity (at BMI 23) Micronutrient Deficiency in Indian Soils

  17. Taking Lessons from Royal Commission Reports Salient Features • 1929: Council of Agricultural Research and the Agricultural Research Fund should be constituted by an Act of the Imperial Legislature • Seed farms to produce and distribute pure seed • Role of agricultural engineering • Dryland Agriculture (1935) • Annual prize for the most striking agricultural improvement of the year • Cattle improvement (feeding and breeding) • Village guides • Harnessing India's youth in agriculture Agricultural Pest and Diseases Act in Madras Province in 1919 Moved from Shortage to Surplus

  18. 2030 Vision for the Global Food System SDG Goal 2: End Hunger, achieve food security, and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture

  19. Targets: Agriculture and Sustainable Development Goals Sustainable Development Goals 2030 relevant to Agriculture and environment are to be kept in mind. “In order to make progress on SDG 2, policy-makers and all other stakeholders will need to consider inter linkages and critical interactions, both in terms of synergies and trade-offs, between SDG 2 and all other goals”.

  20. Total Domestic Demand for Various Food Commodities: million tonne Achieving such high productivity will entail increase in total factor productivity (TFP) from current level of 1.4 to more than 1.75 • BAU-Business as Usual • MM-Maintaining Momentum

  21. RIGHT TO FOOD: National Food Security Act, 2013 Changing Patterns in Consumption 2000-2001 2019-2020

  22. Small Farmer: Core of Indian Agriculture • ~85% farmers have < 2 ha cultivated land • 77% districts have more than 70% smallholders

  23. Context and Concerns • More From Less For More • Starch to Protein to Health Foods • Stress Agriculture, Secondary Agriculture, Speciality Agriculture • Agriculture-Food-Nutrition-Health- Environment-Employment • One Health (Soil-Plant-Animal-Man) • Skill and Youth in Agriculture

  24. Sustainable Food Systems • A Healthy, Sustainable Food System focuses on: • Local, seasonal Foods • Health of the Population • Building Communities • Local Economic Development • Supporting Local Producers, Processors, Distributors and Retailers

  25. Finger Millet Millets as Health Foods Foxtail Millet • Finger millet (Ragi): 1.5 t/ha ( ~ 2 mt) • Foxtail millet (Navane): 0.8 t/ha (~ 0.2 mt) • Barnyard millet (Sava): 1 t/ha Little Millet Kodo Millet Proso Millet

  26. Strategic Crops: Pulses for Nutritional Security 70-70% share of smallholder growing pulses Consumed as Convenient Food Direct demand 11.3 mt Value added products 3.7 mt(20%) Seed 1.2 mt Miscellaneous 1.8 mt

  27. Fruit Crops India: Leader in Horticulture 305+ mt; 26% to GDP Temperate fruits : 957 Temperate vegetable : 959 Flower & Ornamentals : 285 Medicinal and aromatic : 25 • Early Red, Mcintosh, Criterian and Scarlet Spur in apple • Dixi Red, Early Red, June and Red Globe in peach • CITH-Cherry 5 and CITH-Cherry 7 in cherry • Coratina and Leccino in olive • CITH-W 426 and 427 in walnut • Coconut hybrid IND 058S

  28. Science for Society: Pomegranate Way • The variety Bhagwa was released in 2003 by AICRP on Arid Zone Fruits at MPKV, Rahuri, MaharashtraAn ideal crop for the sustainability of small holdings as pomegranate is well suited to the topography and agro-climate of arid and semi-arid regions of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan etc. • Pomegranate is very high in potassium, vitamin C, and antioxidants • Processed products like wine and candy are also gaining importance in world trade • Total Cultivated Area : 50 acres • Total Area under Pomegranate : 50 acres • Gross income from 5 ha. of Pomegranate (in fruiting) : 85.80 Lakh • Net profit for the year 2012-13 :75.80 Lakh Developed from the cross Ganesh x Gul-E-Shah Red

  29. ArkaRakshakand ArkaSamrat: High Yielding Tomato F1 Hybrids with Triple Disease Resistance to Tomato Leaf Curl Virus + Bacterial Wilt + Early Blight Bred for fresh market and processing Suitable for summer, kharif and rabi seasons • ArkaSamrat: • Yields 40-50 tons per acre in 140-150 days. • ArkaRakshak: • Yields 40-50 tons per acre in 140-150 days

  30. IPM – A Tool Towards Health Plant Protection Personnel Information System - 2 • Partnership Model for control of Papaya mealy bug (Rs. 2500 crores) • Agri-Intelligence • Surveillance • Forecasting Papaya mealy bug Cotton mealy bug Anagyrus loecki Acerophaguspapayae Pseudleptomastixmexicana

  31. National Agri-Security Crop Pest Management Decision Support Systems Weeds being challenged • Agri-Intelligence • Surveillance • Forecasting • Sugarcane Woolly Aphid • Papaya Mealy bug Animal Menace 89 disease tolerant wheat accessions Pseudleptomastixmexicana Acerophaguspapayae Crop yield losses

  32. Exploring the Genetic Garden of Biofortified Crops Iron The Genetic Garden for Biofortified plants/crops will contain valuable germplasm of Naturally biofortified crops as well as through Plant breeding. It will also serve as a center for Conservation and Nutrition Education Most common micronutrient deficiencies in humans are iron, iodine, vitamin A, folate, zinc and selenium Folate Zinc Vitamin - A Picture Source: Google images

  33. Components of bio-fortification and value addition Kunitz inhibitor Gluco- sinolate Antho- cyanin Trypto- phan Iron Pro vitamin-A Erucic acid Vitamin-C Protein Lysine Zinc Nutritional Security ICAR implemented several projects for bio-fortification and value addition of crops and many bio-fortified varieties have been released for commercial cultivation

  34. Value addition: HIGH PROTEIN + High yielding variety Ecology-Irrigated Maturity duration-125 days Av. grain yield-4.5 t/ha Protein content-10.3% CR Dhan 311 (High yield+ high protein Ecology-Irrigated Maturity duration-125 days Av. grain yield-4.5 t/ha Protein content-10.3% CR Dhan 311 (High yield+ high protein + high Zinc)

  35. Double zero quality mustard variety “Pusa Double Zero Mustard-31” released • First Canola type Indian mustard variety in India • Average seed yield 23.00 q/ha in coordinated trials • Potential seed yield: 26.68 q/ha • Oil content: 40.56%

  36. Pathway Engineering for Food and Nutrition Crops can be engineered to express metabolic pathways that improve human health Use metabolic engineering to insert new pathways into plants or improve expression of enzymes in existing ones Chemical structures of plant products produced by metabolic engineering strategies

  37. Golden Rice Introgression Breeding for Development of Golden Rice at IARI, New Delhi Iron-enriched High-yielding Indica Rice Cultivar

  38. Noorion Rajpath New Delhi, 26 January, 2013 ‘Swarn’ A Male cloned buffalo calf born through new and advanced 'Hand-guided Cloning Technique MAHIMA A Milestone India's first Ovum pick up – IVF cattle calf 'Holi' First Mithun calf born from cryopreserved embryo ETT ‘Mohan’

  39. Promoting Cage Farming Sea Cage Farm at Karwar

  40. Fish Foods for Health • A product to treat type-II diabetes from seaweeds • Contains 100% natural marine bioactive anti-diabetic ingredients extracted from a blend of marine macroalgae CadalminTM Green Mussel extract from green mussel to combat joint pain, arthritis/inflammatory diseases as an effective green alternative to the synthetic drugs available in the market

  41. Fish in Nutraceuticals Collagen Peptide From Fish Scale CadalminTM Green Algal extract: An anti-arthritic and 100% vegetarian nutraceutical from seaweeds Fish scale Tissue softening Collagen hydrolysis CIFT developed collagen peptide from fish scale Hydroxyapatite Product released Collagen peptide

  42. Secondary Processing of Fish Silo Feed Fish offal-based Feed Tuna Roll Smoked tuna in oil Pig Feed Masmin powder and flakes

  43. Secondary Agriculture: Wine & Ethanol Litchi Wine Production: 450,000 t Yield: 11.5% Sorghum Ethanol: 1100 L/ha Wine from Jamun, Karonda and Pomegranate (8-12%)

  44. Linseed Processing

  45. Ginger Processing ` 2.5 Crore Commercial Facility for the extraction of Gingerol at Bangalore • High gingerol content in ginger • Therapeutic effect in the nutraceuticals / dietary supplement industry • Preparation of >20% w/w total gingerols in free flowing water soluble form • Preparation of >30% w/w total gingerols in free flowing powder form

  46. Indian Health Food Industry • Functional foods seen as an effective measure to arrest the growing nutritional deficiency problems • Health and wellness foods estimated at 10000 crores in 2012 and expected to grow to 55000 crores by 2015 at CAGR of 33% Functional Foods: • Nutrition • Sensory satisfaction • Fortification • Modulation of physiological systems Concept of Nanofoods

  47. Technology for Health Foods Compact fruit Grader Cryogenic Grinding Machine for Spices • Suitable for Ber, Aonla and Tomato • Grades the fruit in four different sizes • For Ber fruits grading capacity varies between 303-460 kg/h at 16-32 rpm with working efficiency of 65-90% • Grading fetches higher returns for the produce Cryogenic grinding helps to retain aroma and flavour of spicesand make fine powder. Suitable for commercial level spice industries. Capacity: 30-50 kg/h Approx. Cost:` 28 lakh Good quality spices helps to fetch higher returns.

  48. Beyond the Farm: Exploiting Potentials for Food Processing Private Investments in Food Industry Litchi Wine Production: 450,000 t Yield: 11.5% Post-Harvest Loss Estimates (including on-farm & handling losses) Post Harvest Losses ` 44,000 crores every year (up to 18%)

  49. Policy: Food Quality Assurance • Covering health foods, supplements, nutraceuticals • Issuing licenses within a timeframe of 2 months • Provision of improvement notice by designated officers • Compounding and adjudication of cases – to reduce Court’s workload and expedite the disposal of cases • Prosecution, if to be launched should be within 1 year time frame Food Safety Act, 2013 Energy drinks in India : ` 700 crore industry, growing 20-25% year-on-year

  50. Global Organic Food and Beverages Market: Overview