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The sustainable management of natural resources with a special focus on water and agriculture IP/A/STOA/FWC/2008-096/LOT3/C1/SC3. STOA Annual Lecture 29 November 2011. Introduction. IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme. The project.

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slide1

The sustainable management of natural resources with a special focus on water and agriculture

IP/A/STOA/FWC/2008-096/LOT3/C1/SC3

STOA Annual Lecture

29 November 2011

slide2
Introduction

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

the project
The project

STOA project ‘Sustainable Management of Natural Resources’

  • August 2011 to January 2013: 18 months:
  • Project partners: IEEP, BIO IS and Ecologic Institute
  • First deliverable: Scoping Paper and workshop at STOA Annual Lecture

PART 1 -- Management of water as a natural resource

PART 2 – Management of natural resources linked to

Europe’s agriculture and food production

the purpose of the project
The purpose of the project
  • to provide an overview of the sustainable

management of natural resources from the points of

view of:

      • water use and water management in the EU;
      • use of natural resources in agriculture in the EU;
  • to identify future challenges.
policy context
Policy context
  • Resource efficiency
    • Flagship of Europe 2020 strategy
    • Roadmap for resource efficiency
  • Sustainable management of water
    • Water Framework Directive
    • Communication on water scarcity and droughts
    • Blueprint to safeguard European Waters
  • Agriculture
    • Critical role in management of natural resources
    • CAP reform proposals
slide7
Sustainable management of water resources –

first findings

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

objective
Objective

Identifying, for the management of water resources:

  • Promising current research developments
  • Emerging technologies available
  • Good practices for efficient water management

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

slide9

Key water challenges in the EU – introduction

  • Imbalances between supply and demand
    • Importance of the problem:
        • geographical and climatic differences,
        • time variations
    • Impact of climate change on water supplies and water needs

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

water use concepts

Key water challenges in the EU – introduction

Water use concepts:

abstraction

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

water use concepts1

Key water challenges in the EU – introduction

Water use concepts:

abstraction

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

slide13

Key water challenges in the EU – introduction

Water use concepts:

consumption

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

slide14

Key water challenges in the EU – introduction

Water use concepts:

consumption

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

slide15

Key water challenges in the EU – introduction

Water use concepts:

consumption

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

slide16

Key water challenges in the EU – introduction

Water use concepts:

consumption

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

slide17
Scientific research on efficient water management Theme 1

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

main research questions
Main research questions
  • What are the most promising current and recent research developments for water use and water management?
  • For the research projects identified, to what extent can they help addressing
      • existing water challenges?
      • potential levels of water savings,
      • potential users,
      • uptake of the results
slide19

Scientific research on efficient water management Theme 1

…. Including contribution of other disciplines

  • First review of FP6 and FP7 projects
  • 12 projects identified, grouped into categories, on the following
  • topics:
      • the agricultural sector
      • the industrial sector
      • urban water services
      • integrated water resource management (IWRM)
      • economic policy instruments (EPIs)
      • global climate change, mitigation of drought and water
      • scarcity

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

slide20

Scientific research on efficient water management Theme 1

Overview of 5 preliminarily selected projects:

1. The agricultural sector

  • SIRIUS (2010 – 2013)

2. The industrial sector

  • Aquafit4use (2008 – 2011)

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

slide21

Scientific research on efficient water management Theme 1

3. Integrated water resource management (IWRM)

  • AquaStress (2005 – 2009)

4. Economic policy instruments (EPIs) for water savings and efficiency

  • EPI-WATER (2011-2013)

5. Global change

  • ALERT (2004- 2007)

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

slide22
Technical tools for improving EU water management

Theme 2

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

main research questions1
Main research questions
  • What are the most promising technical tools available to tackle water management issues in Europe?
  • What are their environmental co-benefits, potential trade-offs, potential levels of water savings, opportunities to extend implementation?
technical tools for improving eu water management theme 2
Technical tools for improving EU water management Theme 2

17 technological tools identified, grouped in 7 main categories:

  • Monitoring of water use;
  • Rating tools and standards;
  • Conveyance technologies;
  • Precision irrigation;
  • Alternative water sources;
  • Agronomic techniques; and
  • Decision making aid tools for water savings.

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

technical tools for improving eu water management theme 21
Technical tools for improving EU water management Theme 2

Overview of 5 selected tools:

1. Monitoring of water use

    • Metering, a basis for identifying inefficiencies and improving
    • practices
  • 2. Conveyance technologies
      • Opportunities for better distribution efficiency
      • Canal lining, which helps to avoid water losses

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

technical tools for improving eu water management theme 22
Technical tools for improving EU water management Theme 2

3. Alternative water sources

    • waste water recycling can have co-benefits in terms of nutrient
    • recovery

4. Agronomic techniques

    • for example conservation tillage, can help reducing surface
    • runoff and evaporation
  • 5. Decision making aid tools for water savings
    • decision support tools (e.g. IRRINET ) can help avoiding
    • unnecessary irrigation

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

slide27
Good policy practices on efficient water management Theme 3

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

main research questions2
Main research questions
  • What are the best practices for efficient water management in the EU as set out within this project?
  • What are their environmental co-benefits, potential trade-offs,
  • potential levels of water savings, and opportunities to extend implementation?
good policy practices on efficient water management theme 3
Good policy practices on efficient water management Theme 3

The practices identified have been grouped into the following main categories:

  • Water management in agriculture
  • Urban water management
  • Cross sectoral (urban water management and agriculture)

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

good policy practices on efficient water management theme 31
Good policy practices on efficient water management Theme 3

Overview of practices identified:

Water management in agriculture

    • irrigation efficiency, examples from
      • Cyprus (support for improved irrigation efficiency), and
      • Spain, Castilla-La Mancha (advice, cooperation agreements)
  • Waste water re-use
    • Gran Canaria (promotion of wastewater reuse in agriculture)
  • Water pricing
    • Spain, Guadalquivir river basin

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

good policy practices on efficient water management theme 32
Good policy practices on efficient water management Theme 3

Urban water management

    • Berlin (Germany) (integrated water management strategy);
    • Zaragoza (Spain) (reducing water demand);
    • Łodz (Poland) (water management in the urban development policy);
  • Cross sectoral (urban water management and agriculture)
    • Tel Aviv (Israel) policies to encourage urban waste water reuse in
    • agriculture;
    • several Spanish regions (exchange of water usage rights between
    • domestic and agricultural use).

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

slide33
Sustainable management of natural resources

linked to Europe’s agriculture and food production –

first findings

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

objective1
Objective

Examining, with regard to the management management of natural resources in agriculture:

  • Interactions between agriculture and climate change
  • Agriculture and the CAP
  • The case of slurry acidification

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

introduction challenges to natural resources in agriculture
Introduction: challenges to natural resources in agriculture
  • European targets for water quality and biodiversity are being missed, soil quality is declining and more is required to meet the climate challenge;
  • There is a clear responsibility on agriculture, like other sectors, to respond; a step change is required;
  • Greater sustainability is also in farmers’ interest over the next decades;
  • The CAP is a means to guide and support change in the management of natural resources; an opportunity not to be squandered;
  • Public support for farming is real, but depends on a sense of cultural integrity, compatibility with core European values. The environment is part of this.
introduction challenges to agricultural productivity
Introduction: Challenges to agricultural productivity
  • A 2°C local warming in mid to high latitudes could increase wheat production by nearly 10 per cent
  • In low latitudesa 2°C local warming would have an opposite effect: by 2030 southern European regions could experience a 5-10 per cent decrease in yields;
  • The future productivity changes will differ locally and will be related to:
        • Biophysical factors ( eg changes in rainfall, temperature etc)
        • Adaptive capacity (adaptation strategies by farmers; advisory services, training, information etc.)
introduction sustainable resource management and food security
Introduction: Sustainable resource management and food security

’Food security’ (FAO, 1996) - involves a balance between viable food production and sustainable management of the natural resource base.

Achieving this balance is dependent on:

  • retaining capacity of the land to produce food into the future;
  • retaining vital ecosystems resilient to climate change and plant health risks;
  • retaining water tables at a sustainable level;
  • retaining soil as a resource, and
  • ensuring capability of land to be resilient to droughts and floods.
slide38
Agriculture and climate change

Theme 4

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

main research questions3
Main research questions
  • What are the most promising technological and best practice options available in EU agriculture, which can contribute to mitigation and adaptation efforts? How cost-effective are these options based on the data available? What are the obstacles to implementation?
  • What are the synergies and trade-offs between practices for climate change adaptation and mitigation and practices for water savings in the agricultural sector?
interactions between agriculture and climate change
Interactions between agriculture and climate change
  • agriculture accounts for cca10 per cent of total EU-27 GHG emissions;
  • three main sources: CH4 emissions from cattle enteric fermentation, direct and indirect N2O emissions from soils;
  • agriculture and land use are critical in maintaining carbon sinks;
  • the use of agricultural biomass for renewable energy.
technically feasible mitigation and adaptation options
Technically feasible mitigation and adaptation options

Thetechnically feasible mitigation options should be evaluated against:

  • cost-efficiency;
  • implementation feasibility;
  • trade-offs and synergies with other environmental objectives;
  • how these measures interact with each other and with adaptation measures .

For thetechnically feasible adaptation options

  • the ‘no-regret’ strategies are particularly important to identify.
options in renewable energy production
Options in renewable energy production
  • The use of agricultural biomass can provide renewable energy and hence mitigate emissions from fossil fuel use.
  • However, environmental risks need to be addressed and hierarchy of uses should be respected:
        • Use of residual wastes (anaerobic digestion for organic manure/slurry; composting of animal by-products)
        • Use of arisings produced by habitat conservation and landscape management
        • Use of agricultural residues (e.g straw)
        • Use of biomass harvested from new and existing woodlands on agricultural land
        • Use of dedicated energy crops
slide45
Agriculture and the CAP

Theme 5

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

main research questions4
Main research questions
  • What are the technologies and land management actions needed to deliver better outcomes for water, soil and climate change mitigation?
  • What type of policy measures within the current CAP and the CAP reform proposals can support technological and non-technological options for sustainable resource use?
  • What is the nature and degree of support from the CAP that may be potentially needed to incentivise their uptake?
the current cap and the natural resource question
The current CAP and the natural resource question
  • Since the 1992 McSharryreform- a gradual introduction of incentive payments to encourage the use of environmentally beneficial practices;
  • Since the 2003 Mid Term Review - a shift away from price support to decoupled payments and the introduction of environmental conditionality through cross compliance;
  • However, many of the environmental media affected by agricultural activity, such as water, soil and biodiversity, continue to deteriorate.
the future cap and the natural resource question
The future CAP and the natural resource question
  • Three overarching objectives:
        • Viable food production;
        • Sustainable management of natural resources and climate action;
        • Balanced territorial development.
  • Climate change is highlighted as a self-standing priority.
  • Knowledge transfer, innovation and advice also receive a much greater highlight than in the current CAP.
pillar 2 new design of the rural development policy
Pillar 2 - New design of the rural development policy

6 Union priorities:

  • Knowledge transfer
  • Enhancing competitiveness
  • Food chain and risk management
  • Preserving and enhancing ecosystems
  • Resource efficiency and transition to a low carbon economy
  • Realising the jobs potential and development of rural areas

Cross-cutting objectives:

  • innovation, environment and climate change mitigation and adaptation
slide52
The case of slurry acidification

Theme 6

IEEP Agriculture and Land Management Programme

main research questions5
Main research questions
  • What is the potential of slurry acidification for reducing GHG emissions?
  • What is the feasibility of deploying slurry acidification technology (or other similar technologies) in different geographic locations and on different types of farms?
  • What is its cost-effectiveness in comparison with other technologies or practices with a similar effect on agricultural greenhouse gas emissions?
ghg emissions and manure management
GHG emissions and manure management
  • Methane and nitrous oxide (CH4 and N2O )-- two important greenhouse gases
  • The deposition of NH3 or particulates of NH4 to land and water leads to eutrophication.
  • As well as reducing GHG emissions, certain types of manure management may reduce ammonia emissions with a knock-on benefit for mitigating negative impacts on water, soil and air.
  • Additionally, improvement of the fertiliser efficiency for manure applied to surface will be achieved.
slurry acidification
Slurry acidification
  • A common practice in The Netherlands and Denmark;
  • During storage, following acidification of the slurry, the NH3 emissions by volatilisation were reduced by 90 per cent compared to untreated slurry;
  • In the field, the acidified slurry had a much lower share of the volatilised NH3 than for untreated slurry.