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THE WAR TO SAVE THE UNION

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  1. THE WAR TO SAVE THE UNION CHAPTER 14 (374-407)

  2. LINCOLN’S CABINET Many feared that Lincoln would not be up to the task – his few speeches seemed to only aggravate this feeling – as did his preoccupation with his cabinet He appointed a “balanced” cabinet William H. Seward – Secretary of State – wanted to reconcile with the south Salmon P. Chase – Secretary of Treasury – a radical – he hated Seward Lincoln’s inaugural address was conciliatory but firm and he affirmed that Southern institutions (slavery) would be in no danger from his administration

  3. FORT SUMTER: THE FIRST SHOT Lincoln was not going to reclaim federal property that the Confederates had taken However, he did not wish to give up either Fort Sumter or Fort Pickens without a show of resistance Lincoln sent a naval expedition to resupply Fort Sumter – the Confederates fired upon the fort before they arrived and it was surrendered after 34 hours Northern indignation caused Lincoln to call for 75,000 volunteers and Virginia, N. Carolina, Arkansas and Tennessee promptly seceded – southerners considered the call for soldiers an act of naked aggression The South argued that it was defending the right of self-determination The North argued that it was defending the Union, and the results of a free election – Lincoln would do whatever it took to preserve it

  4. THE BLUE AND THE GRAY North – 20 million people, the South – 9 million The North produced 9 times as much manufactured goods - 97% of firearms Larger rail system and merchant marine The South thought that public opinion would not sustain a war and that the European powers would come to their aid because of needed resources like cotton They also recognized that they were fighting a defensive war – a distinct advantage The South quickly found a great commanding general, the North did not for a good while

  5. THE BLUE AND THE GRAY Both sides had trouble organizing for the war Recruitment was left to the states and men tended to serve with others from their area Lincoln, a great thinker, boldly took action - he expanded the army without Congressional approval, suspended the writ of habeas corpus, and freed the slaves, among other things – he also kept close tabs on the entire war effort His popularity rose as the war progressed

  6. THE BLUE AND THE GRAY The South faced more problems: They had to quickly form a government under pressure of war and were constrained by severe states’ rights thinking – states routinely defied the central government Jefferson Davis was president – courageous, industrious, and intelligent – also very reserved and opinionated – he was a graduate of West Point but not a great military mind – he often held grudges and did not get along with his subordinates

  7. THE TEST OF BATTLE: BULL RUN At Manassas Junction, 30,000 troops on each side met – General Irvin McDowell commanded the Union troops, Pierre G. T. Beauregard the Confederate troops The North had the early advantage, but Thomas Jackson showed up and turned the tide (earning the name “Stonewall” in the process) and the Union soldiers fled in panic back to Washington – Confederate soldiers were too disorganized to follow up Lincoln quickly called for 500,000 volunteers and set about a new war policy – blockade the South with the navy, take control of the Mississippi, and invade Virginia – General George B. McClellan was put in charge – a capable general but somewhat of an egomaniac

  8. POLITICS AS USUAL Secession left large Republican majorities in both houses Most Democrats supported war measures but objected to how Lincoln conducted the war: “The Constitution as it is, the Union as it was, Negroes as they were” Radicals wanted total abolition and equality, moderates wanted abolition without equality, and Copperheads, or Peace Democrats wanted to win control and force peace negotiations Many were arrested unjustly for preventative measures, according to Lincoln

  9. BEHIND CONFEDERATE LINES The South changed its policies after Bull Run Davis maintained a strong defense A conscription law was passed in 1862 “A rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight” Davis and the state governors were often at odds with one another Taxes, tariffs, loans, and the printing of massive amounts of money paid for the war with many supplies coming from Europe through the blockade – as the blockade tightened, they relied more heavily on their own munitions plants and captured union stores – and prices of everything went up

  10. BEHIND CONFEDERATE LINES The South hoped that the cutting off of cotton would produce a violent response from Europe – it did not – the need for wheat kept Britain in relatively good relations with the North while they supplied the South with guns and supplies in secret When the Union found out that the British were supplying ships to the Confederacy, they threatened war As the war leaned in the North’s favor, British support for the Confederacy diminished

  11. WAR IN THE WEST: SHILOH After Bull Run, no battles were fought until 1862 – both armies were regrouping and preparing for a much more difficult war Meanwhile, while McClellan was readying his troops, fighting raged in the west Most plains Indians sided with the South Most settlers sided with the North Ulysses S. Grant invaded Tennessee, and while waiting to attack Corinth, he was attacked – both sides suffered massive losses – 13,000 for the Union, 10699 for the South – more than the Revolution, 1812, and Mexican War combined (in combat) The confidence of both sides was shaken War ceased to be thought of as merely a romantic test of courage

  12. MCCLELLAN: THE RELUCTANT WARRIOR After the famous battle between the Monitor and the Merrimack, the North controlled the York and James rivers and McClellan moved his army toward Richmond McClellan was very insecure and reluctant to make big decisions – he also believed that capturing Richmond was more important than destroying the army that protected it – He was never quite ready to begin his attack – Ultimately, McClellan allowed the South and new commander Robert E. Lee to gain the upper hand – after 7 days McClellan pulled back losing 15,800 troops to Lee’s 20,000

  13. LEE COUNTERATTACKS: ANTIETAM Lincoln places General Henry Halleck in charge and ordered McClellan back to the Potomac – a mistake – Lee seized the opportunity and counterattacked pushing General Pope back to Bull Run – McClellan was put back in charge Lee then decided to invade the North looking for a decisive victory to demoralize the North – McClellan pursued slowly and finally caught up to Lee at Antietam – after one day 22,000 fell but once again McClellan allowed Lee to escape and was dismissed again by Lincoln

  14. THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION As the war progressed, sentiment against slavery grew – Lincoln was forced to act 1862 – slavery was abolished in DC, then in the territories – in June the Confiscation Act freed all slaves owned by persons in rebellion September 22, 1862 he made public the Emancipation Proclamation that would go into effect January 1, 1863 – all slaves would be free in areas in rebellion When slaves began to be freed, the government kept them in the South because of racial prejudice March 1863, the Conscription Act was passed – all men 20-45 were drafted but they could hire a substitute or pay $300 – only 46,000 were drafted, 118,000 hires substitutes, and 161,000 failed to report

  15. THE DRAFT RIOTS After the Conscription Act passed, riots erupted in many cities, with New York enduring some of the worst Many were upset at the $300 exemption which they could not afford – they were also reluctant to fight to free slaves who would then compete for their jobs

  16. THE EMANCIPATED PEOPLE The Emancipation Proclamation served as a beacon – a promise of freedom Whenever Union armies approached, slaves put down their tools and flocked to the army, flooding their lines with volunteers and mouths to feed Southerners only saw betrayal by their slaves

  17. AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS By the end of the war 1 in 8 troops were black 21 received the Congressional Medal of Honor Black troops had a 40% higher death rate than did white troops – some is attributed to the ruthlessness that Confederate troops fought them with Attitudes were slowly changing - slowly

  18. ANTIETAM TO GETTYSBURG Ambrose Burnside replaced McClellan – he was too aggressive – delayed in his attack on Richmond, Lee had time to reinforce and dig in – Burnside attacked anyway and was defeated and replaced by Joseph Hooker Hooker too often delayed like McClellan did and lost another opportunity at Chancellorsville – losses were over 12,000 on both sides – Stonewall Jackson was killed accidentally by his own men – Later at Gettysburg Hooker once again allowed Lee and his army to escape – Ulysses S. Grant was then put in charge

  19. ULYSSES S. GRANT Washed out of the army, the war gave him a second chance Over time he came to Lincoln’s notice as a capable commander able to win battles Grant’s first task was to take Vicksburg which was the final Confederate hold on the Mississippi – he captured in on July 4, 1863 Federal gunboats effectively kept Texas and Arkansas out of the war from that point forward Soon Grant was in charge of the whole army

  20. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFECTS, NORTH AND SOUTH By 1863 the South was on the road to defeat Manpower was dwindling The blockade was starving them for supplies Prices were skyrocketing Railroads were wearing out The de-centralized government did not allow the South to make proper use of its resources

  21. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFECTS, NORTH AND SOUTH The Northern economy was flourishing Manufacturing was up Railroads were expanding Harvests were increasing due to new machinery The Homestead Act of 1862 gave 160 acres to settlers The National Banking Act of 1863 created a universal currency Prices of goods rose, labor was short

  22. WOMEN IN WARTIME Southern women took over management of farms – many others became nurses – some served in the medical corps Northern women also took over their farms – may others went to work in factories and stores – still others became nurses as well US Sanitary Commission – improved sanitary conditions for soldiers, provided volunteer nurses and raised money for medical supplies

  23. GRANT IN THE WILDERNESS Grant would attack Lee and try to capture Richmond Sherman would march toward Atlanta Each had over 100,000 men Grant knew he could only win by grinding the South down, by overpowering it – in several battles he continued to fight, suffering heavy losses but inflicting more knowing Lee could not afford it – 60,000 casualties in less than a month – Grant came to be known as the “Butcher” – a kind of trench warfare ensued

  24. SHERMAN IN GEORGIA In 1864, pessimism reigned supreme Lincoln was also pressed to win re-election – Democrats nominated McClellan, some Republicans wanted someone else Then Sherman took Atlanta and began his march to the sea destroying everything in his path – slaves flocking to his army Lincoln won support and won re-election212-21 Sherman entered Savannah on Dec 22 having destroyed a strip of Georgia 60 miles wide In 1865 he turned north through South and North Carolina to Virginia

  25. TO APPOMATTOX COURT HOUSE Finally fatally outnumbered, Lee surrendered on April 9, 1865 at Appomattox Court House The terms were simple – all Confederate soldiers would lay down their arms and return to their homes – they were allowed to keep their horses The war was finally over

  26. WINNERS, LOSERS, AND THE FUTURE Over 600,000 people were killed Slavery was dead The United States was now seen more as a single nation than as a collection of states Many questions remained: What to do with all the slaves? Would people be able to get over the war? How would everything change going forward?