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Routing protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Network. Presented By :- Nitesh Jain Date:-26/10/2005. SCHOOL OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KHARAGPUR KHARAGPUR. Types of Wireless Networks. Infrastructure based(Cellular Network). Infrastructureless Network ( Mobile Ad hoc

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Routing protocols in mobile ad hoc network

Routing protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Presented By :-

Nitesh Jain





Types of wireless networks
Types of Wireless Networks

  • Infrastructure based(Cellular Network).

  • InfrastructurelessNetwork(Mobile Ad hoc

    NETwork) (MANET).

Characteristics of an ad hoc network
Characteristics of an Ad-hoc network

  • Collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network

  • Network topology changes frequently and


  • No centralized administration or standard

    support services

  • Host is also function as router

Why is routing different in ad hoc
Why is Routing Different in Ad Hoc ???

  • Host mobility

    • Dynamic topology

    • link failure/repair due to mobility

  • Distributed Environment

  • Bandwidth constrained

  • Energy constrained

Table driven routing protocol
Table Driven Routing Protocol

  • Proactive.

  • Each node maintains one or more tables

    containing routing information to every other

    node in the network.

  • Tables need to be consistent and up-to-date

    view of the network.

  • Updates propagate through the network

Source initiated on demand routing protocol
Source Initiated On demand routing protocol

  • Reactive.

  • on-demand style: create routes only when it is desired by the source node

  • When a node requires a route to a destination,

    it initiates a route discovery process

  • Route is maintained until destination becomes unreachable, or source no longer is interested

    in destination.

Destination sequenced distance vector protocol dsdv
Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector Protocol (DSDV)

  • Basic Routing Protocol

  • Based on Bellman ford routing algorithm with some


  • Each node maintains a list of all destinations and

    number of hops to each destination.

  • Each entry is marked with a sequence number.

  • Periodically send table to all neighbors to maintain


    • Two ways to update neighbors:

      • Full dump

      • Incremental update

Example of dsdv
Example of DSDV

A’s Routing Table Before Change

A’s Routing Table After Change

Clusterhead gateway switch routing cgsr
Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR)

  • Similar to DSDV

  • Based on concept of clusters and cluster heads

  • Routing is done via the cluster heads and


  • A routing table among cluster heads are


Example of cgsr
Example of CGSR

  • Data forwarding steps:

    • from cluster head to

      cluster head

      • in a hierarchical manner

  • then from cluster head to

    cluster members

  • between two cluster heads,

    gateways are used to forward

    the packets

  • Ad hoc on demand distance vector routing aodv
    Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing(AODV)

    • Pure on-demand protocol

    • Node does not need to maintain knowledge of another

      node unless it communicates with it

    • AODV includes route discovery and route maintenance.

    • AODV minimizes the number of broadcasts by creating

      routes on-demand

    • AODV uses only symmetric links because the route reply packet follows the reverse path of route request packet

    • AODV uses hello messages to know its neighbors and

      to ensure symmetric links

    Path discovery
    Path discovery

    • In the path discovery (RREQ) phase, source broadcasts RREQ message.

    • Intermediate nodes record in their route tables the address of neighbor from which RREQ is received to establish a reverse path.

    • When RREQ reaches destination or an intermediate node responds by unicasting a route reply (RREP) back to neighbor.

    Path maintenance
    Path maintenance

    • If source node moves, reestablish the path.

    • If destination or intermediate node moves, send link failure notification message to each of its active upstream.

    • Then reinitiate path discovery .

    Dynamic source routing protocol dsr
    Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR)

    • on-demand

    • A node maintains route cache containing the

      routes it knows

    • Two main phases

      • Route discovery

      • Route maintenance

    • Basic Operation is similar to AODV.

    • Main difference

      • To use routing cache for link failure.

      • When route discovery phase, node send route request message with its own address.

    Zone routing protocol
    Zone Routing Protocol

    • Hybrid of table-driven and on-demand!!

    • From each node, there is a concept of “zone”.

      • Within each zone, the routing is performed in a

        table-driven manner (proactive).

      • However, a node does not try to keep global

        routing information.

    • For inter-zone routing, on-demand routing is


    Example of zpr
    Example of ZPR

    • Three types of nodes:

      • Border Nodes

      • Peripherals Nodes

      • Interior Nodes


    • Elizabeth M. Royer, Chai-Keong Toh, A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks,Proc. IEEE,1999.

    • David B. Johnson, " Routing in Ad hoc Networks of Mobile Hosts", Proc

      IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications.

    • Nicklas Beijar “Zone Routing Protocol“.



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