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Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

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  1. Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title: [WiBEEM (Wireless Beacon-enabled Energy Efficient Mesh network) technology for BAN and U-City Core Services] Date Submitted: [January 17, 2007] Source: [Ho-In Jeon (1) and Jin-Seok Bae (2)] Company: [(1) Dept. Electronic Engineering, Kyung-Won University (KWU), (2)Korean Agency for Technology and Standards (KATS)] Address: [San 65, Bok-Jung-Dong, Sung-Nam-Shi, Kyung-Gi-Do, Republic of Korea] Voice 1: [ +82-31-753-2533], Voice 2:[ +82-10-4708-5328] FAX: [+82-31-753-2532], E-Mail: [jeon1394@kornet.net] Re: [This work has been supported by KATS.] Abstract: [This document proposes a Mesh Network Architecture that can be used for WBAN (Wireless Body Area Network) applications. The proposed technology is called WiBEEM providing beacon-enabled mesh network and thus reduces power consumption. The WiBEEM technology can be used not inly for WBAN not also many core services that U-Cities want to provide.] Purpose: [Technical Contributions on the IEEE 802.15 SG-WBAN Standard] Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein. Release: The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE and may be made publicly available by P802.15. Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  2. WiBEEM Technology forBAN (Body Area Network)and U-City Core Services Ho-In Jeon (1) and Jin-Seok Bae (2) (1) Kyung-Won University, and (2) KATS (Korea Agency for Technology and Standards) Republic of Korea Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  3. Contents • Introduction to U-City and U-City Core Services • Ubiquitous Networking Technologies for U-City Services • Bluetooth, IEEE 802.15.4 Low Rate WPAN, and ZigBee • WiBEEM Technology: The one of the best architectures for WBAN and U-City Core Services • New MAC with Multiple Beacons in One Superframe and Beacon Scheduling for Power Saving • NAA-based Addressing Mode for Efficient Address Space • Device Mobility Supported. • WiBEEM Fast Routing Supported. • Conclusions Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  4. Goals of U-City • Construction of • Integrated, Taylored, • Intelligent, Context-Aware, and thus • Innovative City • Based on U-IT Technologies that can provide the following features: • Always Connected • Broadband Network • Every Device in One Network Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  5. 3 Keywords of Ubiquitous Networking • Always Connected • Shall support roaming and fast handoff. • Shall support mobility and ad-hoc networking. • Shall support seamless connections. • Shall support real-time discovery and control of devices. • Shall support barrier-free interfaces. • Broadband Network • Shall support QoS to some level. • Shall support A/V streaming for VOD. • Every Device in one Network • Shall support IPv6 for high-end devices. • Shall support USN (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks). • Shall support possible applications for RFID Tags Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  6. U-City Core Services • U-Public Services • U-Governance Service • U-Environment Management Services • U-Facility Management Services (Underground as well) • U-Disaster Protection • U-ITS Service • U-Telematics Service • U-Healthcare Service Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  7. U-City Additional Services • VoIP Service • Wireless Internet Service • Telematics Service with Car Remote Ignition • U-Parking Lot Service • Kids and Patients Care • Senile Dementia Control • Digital Hospital with HL7 • Theme Park Management • U-Healthcare Service • VoD and U-Education • Home Viewer Service • Home Appliances andLights Control • Elevator Call Service • AMR Service • Gas Valve Shut Down • Guest / Intruder Control Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  8. Technologies and Infrastructure for U-City • Transport Layer: BcN, IPv6, MPLS • Broadcasting: D-TV, T-DMB, S-DMB • Wired Access Network: xDSL/ FTTx / HFC • Wireless Access: IS-95C, CDMA 2000-1x, IMT-2000, 4G, MBWA, WiBro/WiMax, HSDPA, HSUDA • Local Area Network: Ethernet • WLAN: IEEE 802.11a, b, g, n, e, f, i, n, r, s, u, v, w, y • WPAN: WiBEEM, WiMedia, 802.15.4 + ZigBee, 4a, 5 • Terminal Interface: WWAN, RFID, IPv6 Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  9. Evolution Roadmap of Cellular Tech. 1995 2005 2010 2000 2007 CDMA (IS-95A) 14.4 Kbps CDMA2000-1X EV-DV (3.1/1.8)Mbps 4G CDMA (IS-95B) 56 Kbps CDMA2000-1X 144 Kbps CDMA2000-1X EV-DO Rev.0 (2.4 M/153K)bps CDMA2000-1X EV-DO Rev.A (3.1/1.8)Mbps CDMA2000-1X EV-DO Rev.B N × 3.1 Mbps Sync. (NA) 2 G 3 G 1 G AMPS 3.5 G 2.5 G Async. (EU) GPRS 144 Kbps EDGE 474 Kbps GSM 10 Kbps PDC 28.8 Kbps WCDMA Release 3 (2.3/2.3) M WCDMA Release 5 (14.4/2.3) M WCDMA Release 6 (14.4/5.8) M WCDMA Release 7/8 30 ~ 100 M (HSDPA) (HSUPA) Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  10. Evolutions of WWAN Technologies Moving Speed 2000 2005 2010 and Later Cellular Tech. 4G Or Wired/ WirelessConverged Network 2G/2.5G 3.5G 3G W-CDMA/ cdma-2000 GSM/cdmaOne HSDPA WLL Wireless Access WiBro WLAN IEEE 802.16e IEEE 802.3 Ethernet IEEE 802.11 Internet Tech. t Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  11. Some Service Scenarios with WiBEEM Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  12. U-Healthcare Service Scenario U-Healthcare Center Home Internet 4. Transmit the Collected Data 2. Data Collection 3. Emergency Alert FTTH 1. Subscription of U-Healthcare Service RG(AP) 5. Store Data WiBEEM WirelessInternet 6. Analyze the Data 4. Transmit the Collected Data Hospital 8. Emergency Service WWAN WiBEEM 10. Provision of Contents Subscribed CellularPhone 2. Data Collection 7. Call the Emergency Service 9. Periodic Monitoring 3. Emergency Alert Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  13. U-Healthcare Services and U-Terminal • U-Terminal • U-Healthcare Watch Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  14. U-Healthcare System Configuration Transfer the sensed bio-data from the healthcare watch toIDC BaseStation HealthcareWatch 2 Km Internet WiBEEM Module < 20 m U-Terminal WiBEEM Module Transmission of Analyzed Health Status to the User < 20 m Algorithm for Analyzing Health Data WiBEEM Module Residential Gateway IDC Serverfor CDSS Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  15. U-Healthcare Service Modules CDMA (or GSM) Module CPU (ARM9orAtmel AVR 128) WiBEEM RF Chip CPU (Atmel AVR 128) Sensor1 WiBEEM RF Chip Sensor2 ROM GPS Module RTC Sensorn RAM LCD Controller ROM Device1 DSP(VoIP) RAM Touch Pad and Controller Devicen LCD WiBEEM Module withSensors or Devices U-Terminal Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  16. WiBEEM WiBEEM WiBEEM WiBEEM WiBEEM WiBEEM WiBEEM WiBEEM U-Home with WiBEEM Technology Gas Meter Room#3 Washer UtilityRoom WiBEEM WiBEEM PC VPhone PDA Gas Oven Bath- room DTV Refrig. Room #2 DTV PC Oven Microwave Oven STB DCam. : IEEE1394 Kitchen : WiBEEM Association Point Door Phone Living Room VPhone WiBEEMMPC DTV Meter Reader WiBEEM PVR WiBEEM Room #1 Power Meter PC DCam. Room#4 DTV VDSLMODEM PDA DAM Water Meter PVR Printer Phone Jack HS/MMRG Phone Jack AP or PNC PDA DCam. Cable, Satellite, Terrestrial Internet FTTH DSLAM ONU Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  17. U-Parking Lot Service with WiBEEM WiBEEM Gatewaywith/without Gate Controller U-Parking Lot Controller Wired Network WiBEEM MRC Wireless Mesh Internet WiBEEM Sensor Node Assoc. Relation WiBEEM Basement 2 U-ParkingLot Server WiBEEM WiBEEMGateway U-CityControl Center Basement 3 Basement 4 WiBEEM Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  18. Characteristics of U-Parking Lot Service (1/2) • One MPC will take care of all the MRD’s, the sensor nodes as well as moving cars with U-terminal. • The gate controller functioning as the Gateway could be the best position of MPC. • Association point seems to be always the same. • The MPC appears to be the best Association point for all the incoming cars. • The PNC could be the best short address assigner. • The limitation of the maximum number of children for any router of the wireless network may seriously limit the applicability of the protocol. Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  19. Characteristics of U-Parking Lot Service (2/2) • Devices are moving fast! (at least 30 Km/h) • Reassociation should be avoided due to the fact that there can be heavy unnecessary association request traffic. • The network address shall be the same for any position. • Traffic Directions • Every traffic from both sensor nodes and the mobile terminal is toward the MPC. • The delivery of the traffic from the MPC to the incoming cars requires fast routing using the RREP type of AODV-like simplified reactive routing algorithm is required and possible. • No need to send RREQ by MPC, rather RREP sent directly by the moving cars. • Disassociation request before leaving the network will be very important for address space reusability. Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  20. Telematics Service • U-Terminal Interfaced with Car ECU through WiBEEM Satellite Home Network Satellite DMB WiBEEM WiBro Telematics Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  21. U-ITS Service Internet U-Terminal Traffic Controllerwith WiBEEM Module (WiBEEM Gateway) WiBEEM MRC U-City Control Center Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  22. Internet Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh U-Gas Station Service GasStationOffice MPC Gas Pump Gas Pump Gas Pump Gas Pump Gas Pump Gas Pump Gas Pump Gas Pump OUT IN DisassociationPoint AssociationPoint Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  23. Internet U-Restaurant Service RestaurantOffice MPC WiBEEM WiBEEM Table 1 Table 2 WiBEEM WiBEEM WiBEEM Table 4 Table 3 Table 5 WiBEEM WiBEEM WiBEEM Table 8 Table 6 Table 7 OUT IN DisassociationPoint AssociationPoint Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  24. Characteristics of U-Restaurant Services • One MPC at the restaurant office will take care of all the MRDs, the sensor nodes and U-terminals. • The restaurant office could be the best position of MPC with MEU Gateway functionality. • The U-Payment service shall also be available. • The characteristics of the U-Restaurant service is almost same as the U-Gas Station service, while it can be a very dense mode environment. Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  25. U-Tourism/Cultural U-City Control Center U-Terminal WWAN WiBEEM Museum Historical Tower Monariza Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  26. Dense Mode in a Subway Station R R R R R R R R R R 12 R R R 13 R R R R 9 R R 8 11 R RF Range R R 5 10 7 R R R R R R 2 R 4 6 R R R R R R R 1 3 R R R R R R R R MPC R R R R 14 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R 15 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  27. Characteristics of Dense Mode • Dense mode means that there are a lot of nodes within the RF range of each other. • If there are limitations of maximum number of children that can associate, there may be a ridiculous tree topology for the tree routing. • Unnecessary routing will also be needed even if the blue routable device (node 13) may directly want to send his data to the MPC device. Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  28. Environment Management with Mesh U-City Management Center Sensor Nodes Sensor Gateway 2 1 N-3 0 N N-2 N-1 20 Km • A scenario in which the device 1 wishes to send its sensed data to device N which is the sensor gateway located 20 Km apart. • Assumptions • The RF range of each device is assumed to be 20m. • Multi-hop topology has been used for the propagation of data • Each device is assumed to use beacon to reduce power consumption. Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  29. Fundamental Philosophies for U-City • Adopt as many standardized technologies as possible. • Apply minimum number of technologies. • Minimize the number of terminals to be used. • Provide maximum number of services. • Guarantee the Interoperability for different services in the U-City • Guarantee the Interoperability for different/Similar services in different U-Cities. • One of the solutions could be WiBEEM technology and Broadband WWAN. Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  30. Mesh Networking Capabilities with very Low Power Consumptions: Multiple Beacons in BOP with Beacon Scheduling Fast Mobility Support of New Devices: RREP Single Association Point without Limitation on the Maximum Number of Children: Efficient Address Allocation with NAA Fast Association of New Device with Dynamic Topology Fast Routing: RREP-like packet transmitted by the mobile device Fast Device and Service Discovery: NAA Disassociation Notifications for Address Space Reusability QoS Support: Needs more research Apply WiBEEM technology to all the services!!! WiBEEM: the Solution for These Issues Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  31. Bluetooth Technology Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  32. Bluetooth V1.1 = IEEE 802.15.1 • Forget Plug and Play - Just Play • 723.2Kbps (Async) (v1.1) • 3 Mbps (v2.0 EDR) • 2.4GHz ISM band • 3 Voice Channels • 8 Participants in a Piconet • Crucial component for the wireless world! • Simple Cable Replacement Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  33. Piconet and Scatternet of Bluetooth Slave 3 Slave 2 Slave 3 Slave 2 Master Slave 4 Master Slave 5 Slave 1 Slave 1 Bluetooth Scatternet: BT1.2 (Being defined in BT1.2, but not stabilized yet, and only CSR has announced the basic functionality.) Bluetooth Piconet: BT1.1 (Most Bluetooth devices are BT1.1compliant, and only 8 active nodes can participate in wireless communications.) Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  34. Fundamentals of Bluetooth Technology • Long Association Time: 3 seconds • Scanning the whole channel take a long time. • Mobility cannot be supported. • The FHS (Frequency Hopping Sequence) must be downloaded. • Bandwidth vs. Data Rate • 723.2 Kbps using 83.5 MHz Band • Data conflicts with 1/79 whenever new PAN joins the network. • Limited Number of Active Participants: 8 • Limits the applicability drastically. • Scatternet is not supported yet. • Network Expandability problem. Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  35. Bluetooth Profiles Generic Access Profile TCS-BIN-based Profiles Cordless Phone Profile Intercom Profile Service Discovery Application Profile Serial Port Profile Generic Object Exchange Dial-up Networking Profile Profile Fax Profile File Transfer Profile Headset Profile Object Push Profile LAN Access Profile Synchronization Profile Car Profile Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  36. ZigBee over IEEE 802.15.4 Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  37. Superframe Structure of 802.15.4 Beacon Beacon CFP CAP GTS #1 GTS #2 Inactive 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 1 2 SlotD (Slot Duration) SlotD = aBaseSlotDuration × 2SO [symbols] = 60 × 2SO [symbols] = 0.96 × 2SO [msec] SD (Superframe Duration) SD = aBaseSuperframeDuration * 2SO [symbols] = 960 * 2SO [symbols] = 15.36 * 2SO [msec] BI (Beacon Interval) = aBaseSuperframeDuration * 2BO [symbols] = 960 * 2BO [symbols] = 15.36 * 2BO [msec] Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  38. Endpoint 240 Endpoint 0 Endpoint 1 APSDE-SAP APSDE-SAP APSDE-SAP - NLME-SAP MLDE-SAP MLME-SAP ZigBee over 802.15.4 Protocol Stack Application (APL) Layer Application Framework ZigBee Device Object (ZDO) Application Object 240 Application Object 1 Device Management Security Management ZDO Public Interfaces … Binding Management Network Management ZigBee Alliance Application Support Sublayer (APS) APSME-SAP Discovery Management Reflector Management APS Security Management APS Message Broker Security Service Provider ZDO Management Plane NLDE-SAP Network (NWK) Layer Network Message Broker NWK Security Management Routing Management Network Management Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer IEEE 802. 15.4 PLME-SAP PD-SAP Physical (PHY) Layer 2.4 GHz Radio 868/915 MHz Radio Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  39. Mesh of ZB Works at Non-Beacon Mode 3 0 52 5 36 1 4 0 21 0 35 5 2 1 5 0 0 17 20 0 19 1 6 0 18 5 ZBC 1 5 17 1 22 0 7 1 24 1 12 1 23 0 13 0 • All the intermediate nodes have to be awake all the time. • There is no synchronization mechanism for wake up. • The router devices wastes battery very fast. • It has been reported that 2 AA batteries last only 3 hours. Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  40. Beacon Scheduling in ZigBee • Beacon scheduling in ZigBee can be applied only for low duty cycle, e.g., 1%. Parent : CAP : Beacon Beacon Tracking Child Beacon Tx Offset Grand Child Grand Grand Child Beacon Tx Offset Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  41. Problems of Beacon Scheduling in ZigBee • Serious Propagation Delay with the Increasing Depth • The delay is computed to be (n – 1) × Superframe Length : Beacon Depth = 4, Data Transfer Path:5 → 4 → 3 → 2 → 1 : CAP Superframe #1 Superframe #2 Superframe #3 Superframe #4 1 2 3 4 5 Data Transfer from 5 to 4 Data Transfer from 4 to 3 Data Transfer from 3 to 2 Data Transfer from 2 to 1 Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  42. Basic Parameters for Addressing in ZBA • Hierarchical block addressing for Tree Routing. • The tree topology is specified by three parameters: • Lm = Maximum Tree Depth. • Cm = Maximum Number of Children per Node • Rm = Maximum Number of Routable Devices • Total size of Address Block allocated to the tree: • Size of the block allocated to a child at level Li+1: Lm + 1 1– Cm 1–Cm Bsize = Lm– d –1 1 + Cm – Rm – Cm × Rm 1–Rm Cskip(d) = Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  43. Logical Address Block Assignment Cm= 4, Rm = 3, Lm = 3 3 0 52 5 36 1 4 0 21 0 35 5 2 1 5 0 0 17 20 0 19 1 6 0 18 5 1 5 22 0 7 1 24 1 17 1 23 0 12 1 Lm– d –1 1 + Cm – Rm – Cm × Rm 1–Rm Cskip(d) = 13 0 An = Aparent + Cskip(d)× Rm + n is the address of the end device when it associates at the nth order. Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  44. Limitations of ZigBee Hierarchical Addressing • It wastes the address space too quickly. • It limits the network expandability. • It does not provide device mobility due to the limitation of the maximum number of children that can associate. • Some devices cannot allow new devices to associate. Number of Addresses Allocated Depth Number of Addresses Allocated Depth Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  45. HiLow: Hierarchical Routing for 6LoWPAN • Route Computation • AP : Parent’s Address • AC : Current Node’s Address • MC : Maximum Number of Children • Address Assignment: • MC : Maximum Number of Children • AP : Parent’s Address • N : The number of children that the current parent has. • C : The address of the new node. Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  46. Limitations of HiLow Routing • It wastes the address space too quickly. • It limits the network expandability, and thus applicability. • It does not provide device mobility due to the limitation of the maximum number of children that can associate. Number of Addresses Allocated Depth Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  47. Adaptive Block Addressing of 802.15.5 • Stage 1: Association [children#][children#]=[8][6] resv’ed: [beg,end]=[0,9000]branch1: [beg,end]=[9001,41000]branch2: [beg,end]=[41001,65000] A • Stage 2: Children number collection [5][2] [5] B J [9001,13000][13001,33000][33001,41000] [41001,45000][45001,65000] • Stage 3: Address assignment • An adaptive tree (AT) is formed. • Additional addresses are reserved. [1][2][1] [3][1] C H K [1] [13001,17000][17001,21000][21001,29000][29001,33000] [45001,49000][49001,61000][61001,65000] [33001,37000][37001,41000] [0] [37001,41000] [0] D E G I L O [0] [1][1] [61001,65000] [1] [0] [29001,33000] [49001,53000][53001,57000][57001,61000] [17001,21000] [21001,25000][25001,29000] F M N [0] [0] [0] [25001,29000] [57001,61000] [53001,57000] Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  48. WiBEEM Protocol for WBAN and U-City Core Services Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  49. Features of WiBEEM Consumes very low power Ease of installation Reliable data transfer from 250 Kbps to 4 Mbps 1-hop comm. within 30 m and expandable to several kilometers via Mesh. Mesh topology for beacon-enabled sensor networks Extremely low-cost A very long battery life A simple and flexible protocol Overview of the WiBEEM Specification • Target market • U-Healthcare • Information Infrastructure for Digital Hospital • WBAN (Body Area Network) • U-Home Networking • Automatic Meter Reading • Universal Remote Controller • Automotive Networks • Industrial Networks • Facility Management of a City • Sensor Network • Audio/Video capable Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

  50. WiBEEM Protocol Stack Higher Layer NLDE-SAP NLME-SAP WiBEEM NWK Layer Security Network Management Network Message Broker Routing Management MLDE-SAP MLME-SAP WiBEEM MAC Layer PLDE-SAP PLME-SAP WiBEEM Physical (PHY) Layer 2.4 GHzRadio (Ch.1) 2.4 GHzRadio (Ch.16) 2.4 GHzRadio (Ch.3) 2.4 GHzRadio (Ch.2) Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)