Chapter 6 Lesson 3 How Are Plants Sorted Into Groups?
Vocabulary Preview • Nonvascular plant: plant without transport tubes to carry water/nutrients throughout the plant • Vascular plant: a plant with tubes to carry water/nutrients throughout the plant.
Vocabulary Xylem: vascular tissue that carries water and nutrients from roots to other parts of a plant Phloem: vascular tissue that carries food from leaves to other parts of a plant
Vocabulary Gymnosperm: a vascular plant that produces seeds that are not surrounded by fruit. Angiosperm: a flowering plant whose seeds are surrounded by fruit.
Have you ever seen a rock or log covered with a moist, velvety green plant? What you’ve seen isn’t really a plant, but many tiny moss plants. Mosses are nonvascular plants. Nonvascular Plants Mosses grow on rocks, on trees, and in other places where they can absorb nutrients and moisture.
Nonvascular Plants • Nonvascular plants: don’t have true roots, but are anchored into the ground by small root-like structures. • They have small, leaf-like structures that make food. • But they aren’t true leaves because they have no veins. • Nonvascular plants don’t have any tissue for carrying materials throughout the plant.
Nonvascular Plants • absorb water and nutrients from their surroundings • Water in the plant carries food/nutrients directly from cell to cell. Because of this, they can’t grow tall. • Since their small, they can absorb enough water to carry throughout the plants. • When there is not enough water, a nonvascular plant such as moss quickly dries out and turns brown. • When it rains, many mosses turn green again.
Vascular Plants • Trees are more complex than mosses. • Trees belong to the vascular plant group. • Vascular Plants: have tissues that support the plant and carry water/food. • Roots, stems, and leaves all contain vascular tissue.
Vascular Plants • There are 2 types of vascular tissue. • Xylem: carries water/nutrients from roots to other parts of a plant • Phloem: carries food from leaves to the rest of the plants (think phloem=food) • With these tissues, vascular plants do not rely on water moving to nearby cells only.
Phloem and Xylem Song • Sung to "This Old Man" Xylem’s up, phloem’s downCarrying food all aroundXylem takes it from the rootsPhloem transports sugary foodIn between them, you will findCambium makes cells all the timePhloem’s closest to the barkXylem’s near the center part Photosynthesis, you’ll seeMakes the food for the treeCO2 and the sunAnd chlorophyll, round out the funMaking food in the leavesGlucose that is sugaryXylem’s up, phloem’s downCarrying good food all around!
Vascular Plants • Vascular plants vary more than nonvascular plants. • They include: tiny duckweed, giant redwood trees, cacti, and orchids Xylem cells in the trunk of a tree transport water. Phloem cells, just under the bark, transport food. Each year, new layers of xylem and phloem grow.
Seed-Bearing Plants • Have you ever seen a pine tree with cones hanging from its branches? • This is a vascular plant that grew from a seed. • The cones contained seeds. • Seeds enable plants to grow. • Seed plants don’t need water for fertilization.
Seed-Bearing • The seeds of pines are considered “naked” because they are protected only by a seed coat. • This is in contrast to seeds that are protected inside by a fruit. • A plant that produces names seeds is a gymnosperm.
What pine cone do you think is male? HINT: The Male cone forms at the bottom of the tree and is much smaller!
Seed-Bearing Plants • Gymnosperms are different from flowering plants, such as the apple tree. • Apple trees have flowers instead of cones. • Flowers produce seeds inside the fruit. • A flowering plant, which has seeds protected by fruit is an angiosperm.
Seed-Bearing Plants • Seed development is more complex in angiosperms. • Their protected seeds have made it possible for angiosperms to live in nearly all parts of the world.
A little Justin Bieber to help you remember! Listen to this song and you will understand the differences between: *nonvascular and vascular *angiosperm and gymnosperm