Systems Design: Job-Order Costing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

systems design job order costing n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Systems Design: Job-Order Costing PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Systems Design: Job-Order Costing

play fullscreen
1 / 86
Systems Design: Job-Order Costing
186 Views
Download Presentation
royal
Download Presentation

Systems Design: Job-Order Costing

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Systems Design: Job-Order Costing Chapter 3

  2. Learning Objective 1 Distinguish between process costing and job-order costing and identify companies that would use each costing method.

  3. A company produces many units of a single product. • One unit of product is indistinguishable from other units of product. • The identical nature of each unit of product enables assigning the same average cost per unit. Types of Product Costing Systems ProcessCosting Job-orderCosting

  4. A company produces many units of a single product. • One unit of product is indistinguishable from other units of product. • The identical nature of each unit of product enables assigning the same average cost per unit. Types of Product Costing Systems ProcessCosting Job-orderCosting Example companies:1. Weyerhaeuser (paper manufacturing)2. Reynolds Aluminum (refining aluminum ingots) 3. Coca-Cola (mixing and bottling beverages)

  5. Many different products are produced each period. • Products are manufactured to order. • The unique nature of each order requires tracing or allocating costs to each job, and maintaining cost records for each job. Types of Product Costing Systems ProcessCosting Job-orderCosting

  6. Many different products are produced each period. • Products are manufactured to order. • The unique nature of each order requires tracing or allocating costs to each job, and maintaining cost records for each job. Types of Product Costing Systems ProcessCosting Job-orderCosting Example companies:1. Boeing (aircraft manufacturing)2. Bechtel International (large scale construction) 3. Walt Disney Studios (movie production)

  7. Comparing Process and Job-Order Costing

  8. Quick Check  Which of the following companies would be likely to use job-order costing rather than process costing? a. Scott Paper Company for Kleenex. b. Architects. c. Heinz for ketchup. d. Caterer for a wedding reception. e. Builder of commercial fishing vessels.

  9. Quick Check  Which of the following companies would be likely to use job-order costing rather than process costing? a. Scott Paper Company for Kleenex. b. Architects. c. Heinz for ketchup. d. Caterer for a wedding reception. e. Builder of commercial fishing vessels.

  10. Learning Objective 2 Identify the documents used in a job-order costing system.

  11. Job-Order Costing – An Overview Charge direct material and direct labor costs to each job as work is performed. Direct Materials Job No. 1 Direct Labor Job No. 2 Manufacturing Overhead Job No. 3

  12. Indirect Manufacturing Costs Manufacturing Overhead, including indirect materials and indirect labor, are allocated to all jobs rather than directly traced to each job. Direct Materials Job No. 1 Direct Labor Job No. 2 Manufacturing Overhead Job No. 3

  13. PearCo Job Cost Sheet Job Number A - 143 Date Initiated 3-4-09 Date Completed Department B3 Units Completed Item Wooden cargo crate Direct Materials Direct Labor Manufacturing Overhead Req. No. Amount Ticket Hours Amount Hours Rate Amount Cost Summary Units Shipped Direct Materials Date Number Balance Direct Labor Manufacturing Overhead Total Cost Unit Product Cost The Job Cost Sheet

  14. Will E. Delite Measuring Direct Materials Cost

  15. Measuring Direct Materials Cost

  16. Measuring Direct Labor Costs

  17. Job-Order Cost Accounting

  18. Learning Objective 3 Compute predetermined overhead rates and explain why estimated overhead costs (rather than actual overhead costs) are used in the costing process.

  19. Why Use an Allocation Base? Manufacturing overhead is applied to jobs that are in process. An allocation base, such as direct labor hours, direct labor dollars, or machine hours, is used to assign manufacturing overhead to individual jobs. • We use an allocation base because: • It is impossible or difficult to trace overhead costs to particular jobs. • Manufacturing overhead consists of many different items ranging from the grease used in machines to production manager’s salary. • Many types of manufacturing overhead costs are fixed even though output fluctuates during the period.

  20. Estimated total manufacturingoverhead cost for the coming period POHR = Estimated total units in theallocation base for the coming period Ideally, the allocation base is a cost driver that causes overhead. Manufacturing Overhead Application The predetermined overhead rate (POHR) used to apply overhead to jobs is determined before the period begins.

  21. The Need for a POHR Using a predetermined rate makes itpossible to estimate total job costs sooner. Actual overhead for the period is notknown until the end of the period.

  22. Determining Predetermined Overhead Rates Predetermined overhead rates are calculated using a three-step process. Estimate total amount of the allocation base for the period. Estimate total manufacturing overhead costs.  Estimate the level of production for the period. POHR =  ÷ 

  23. Overhead applied = POHR × Actual activity Application of Manufacturing Overhead Based on estimates, and determined before the period begins. Actual amount of allocation is based upon the actual level of activity (normal costing system).

  24. Estimated total manufacturingoverhead cost for the coming period POHR = Estimated total units in theallocation base for the coming period $640,000 POHR = 160,000 direct labor hours (DLH) Overhead Application Rate POHR = $4.00 per DLH For each direct labor hour worked on a particular job, $4.00 of factory overhead will be applied to that job.

  25. Job-Order Cost Accounting

  26. Job-Order Cost Accounting

  27. Interpreting the Average Unit Cost The average unit cost should not be interpreted as the costs that would actually be incurred if anadditional unit was produced.Fixed overhead would not change if another unitwas produced, so the incremental cost of another unit is something less than $118.

  28. Quick Check  Job WR53 at NW Fab, Inc. required $200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at $15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was $760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 20,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? a. $200. b. $350. c. $380. d. $730.

  29. Quick Check  Job WR53 at NW Fab, Inc. required $200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at $15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was $760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 20,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? a. $200. b. $350. c. $380. d. $730.

  30. Learning Objective 4 Understand the flow of costs in a job-order costing system and prepare appropriate journal entries to record costs.

  31. Job-Order Costing Document Flow Summary A sales order is the basis of issuing a production order. A production order initiates work on a job.

  32. Direct materials Indirect materials Job-Order CostingDocument Flow Summary Materialsused may beeither direct orindirect. Job Cost Sheets MaterialsRequisition Manufacturing Overhead Account

  33. Direct Labor Indirect Labor Job-Order CostingDocument Flow Summary Anemployee’stime may be eitherdirect orindirect. Job Cost Sheets Employee Time Ticket Manufacturing Overhead Account

  34. IndirectMaterial POHR rate used to apply overhead IndirectLabor Job-Order CostingDocument Flow Summary MaterialsRequisition OtherActual OHCharges Manufacturing Overhead Account Job Cost Sheets EmployeeTime Ticket

  35. Learning Objectives 4 and 7 Understand the flow of costs in a job-order costing system and prepare appropriate journal entries to record costs. Use T-accounts to show the flow of costs in a job-order costing system.

  36. Job-Order Costing: The Flow of Costs The transactions (in T-account and journal entry form) that capture the flow of costs in a job-order costing system are illustrated on the following slides.

  37. Direct Materials • Direct Materials • Indirect Materials • Indirect Materials The Purchase and Issue of Raw Materials Raw Materials Work in Process(Job Cost Sheet) • Material Purchases Mfg. Overhead Actual Applied

  38. Cost Flows – Material Purchases Raw material purchases are recorded in aninventory account.

  39. Cost Flows – Material Usage Direct materials issued to a job increase Work in Process and decrease Raw Materials. Indirect materials used are charged to Manufacturing Overhead and also decrease Raw Materials.

  40. Direct Labor • IndirectLabor • Direct Labor • IndirectLabor The Recording of Labor Costs Work in Process(Job Cost Sheet) Salaries and Wages Payable • Direct Materials Mfg. Overhead Actual Applied • Indirect Materials

  41. The Recording of Labor Costs The cost of direct labor incurred increases Work in Process and the cost of indirect labor increases Manufacturing Overhead.

  42. Recording Actual Manufacturing Overhead Work in Process(Job Cost Sheet) Salaries and Wages Payable • Direct Labor • Direct Materials • IndirectLabor • Direct Labor Mfg. Overhead Actual Applied • Indirect Materials • IndirectLabor • OtherOverhead

  43. Recording Actual Manufacturing Overhead In addition to indirect materials and indirect labor, other manufacturing overhead costs are charged to the Manufacturing Overhead account as they are incurred.

  44. Learning Objective 5 Apply overhead cost to Work in Process using a predetermined overhead rate.

  45. Overhead Applied • OverheadApplied to Work inProcess Applying Manufacturing Overhead Work in Process(Job Cost Sheet) Salaries and Wages Payable • Direct Labor • Direct Materials • IndirectLabor • Direct Labor Mfg. Overhead Actual Applied • Indirect Materials If actual and applied manufacturing overheadare not equal, a year-end adjustment is required. • IndirectLabor • OtherOverhead

  46. Applying Manufacturing Overhead Work in Process is increased when Manufacturing Overhead is applied to jobs.

  47. Accounting for Nonmanufacturing Cost Nonmanufacturing costs are not assigned to individual jobs, rather they are expensed in the period incurred. Examples:1. Salary expense of employees who work in a marketing, selling, or administrative capacity. 2. Advertising expenses are expensed in the period incurred.

  48. Accounting for Nonmanufacturing Cost Nonmanufacturing costs (period expenses) are charged to expense as they are incurred.

  49. Learning Objective 6 Prepare schedules of cost of goods manufactured and cost of goods sold.

  50. Cost ofGoodsMfd. • Cost ofGoodsMfd. Transferring Completed Units Work in Process(Job Cost Sheet ) Finished Goods • Direct Materials • Direct Labor • Overhead Applied