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Hi kids, I’m the famous Greek philosopher, Aristotle. You thought I died around 300 B.C., but the Church brought me back to life almost 900 years ago, even though I’m a pagan, whatever that is. Anyway, that’s an advantage of going into the metaphysics

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Hi kids, I’m the famous Greek philosopher,

Aristotle. You thought I died around

300 B.C., but the Church brought me back

to life almost 900 years ago, even though

I’m a pagan, whatever that is. Anyway, that’s an

advantage of going into the metaphysics

profession. HarHar! Anyway, Mr. B. asked me

to come here & prove to you that the earth is the

center of the universe. So here goes. Hold on to

your tunics, or whatever it is you wear these days.

Don’t worry, this should only take about 5.5 minutes

out of your future. Whatever a minute is.

7:21

slide2

But first we have to determine what is the

primary shape in planes & solids?

Or, to put it another way, Which

is more logical: that complex

forms arise from simple ones,

or that simple forms arise from

complex ones?

slide3

Of course,simple forms arise from

complex ones. You’d have to be

some sort of Thracian moron not

to get that one.

slide4

So, then, what would be the

primary shape in planes?

Would it be this….

slide8

Of course, it’s the circle, which is

Bounded by only 1 side. By the

Way, the smiley face inside the

Circle doesn’t really exist. But

You’d have to ask Plato about

That one.

slide11

Or maybe

this…

slide13

Of course, it would

Be the sphere,

Which is also

bounded

By only 1 side.

slide14

Therefore, the only

Logical shape for the

Universe would be?

slide15

A sphere, of course.

In fact, think how absurd it would

Be for an orbiting planet if the

Universe were square. Sometimes

Its orbit would be inside the square

& at other times it would be outside

of the universe, which of course is

patently absurd.

slide16

Here’s another question.

What is this thing

I’m trapped inside of & how do

I get out?

slide17

Thanks. It was getting cramped in there

Back to our lecture. There is observable

Evidence that the earth is round. …

slide21

Or the shadow of the earth shown

during a lunar eclipse

slide22

This also proves how large the

earth is, an estimated 9987 miles

in circumference!!

slide23

That’s certainly not as big as

Eratosthenes’ experiment

in the 2nd century B.C.E. seemed to

suggest,some 25,000 miles.

slide24

Next comes the question of

natural and forced motion.

What would be an example

of natural motion?

slide25

Unfortunately, you’re right

again. See how this apple

rushes joyously towards its

natural resting place at the

center of the universe, which

also happens to be the

center of the earth. More

on that later.

slide26

Could someone prop me up &

Get me an aspirin? I’ve got

A splitting headache.

I don’t feel so great myself.

slide27

Thanks. So what would be an

example of forced motion?

slide29

If that’s not forced motion

I don’t know what is.

slide31

Oh yes. Anything involving a

Donkey has to be forced Motion.

(Stupid donkeys)

slide32

Don’t worry. I’m just a bad

Memory to remind you of

What Natural motion is.

This raises the question of

what causes natural motion?

slide33

Of course, it’s an object like this

Apple rushing joyously

toward its natural resting

place at the center of the universe.

(stupid apple)

slide34

Then, there are the objects

that don’t seem to be consistent

with any one element. Uh oh. I

Seem to be coming unanchored.

This happened a lot before they

Invented gravity.

slide36

You have no idea how much

of a relief it will be when

we get to the 1600s &

Newton invents gravity.

slide37

For thousands of years, people,

Animals, and even entire cities

Have floated mysteriously off

Like this into space, never to

Be heard from again.

slide38

Onetime when this happened I was

stuck up in a tree for 3 days.

slide39

There we go. Let’s see. We were

talking about things

that don’t seem to be consistent

with any one element. Such as wood,

which is solid, burns, but also floats.

slide40

The answer is simple. It’s made up

of more than one element:

Earth because it’s solid,

fire because it burns, and

air because it still floats as ash after

the fire is burned out of it.

slide41

What about other things that

are solid, burn, and float,

like bunnies?

I’m not solid.

I’m soft & fluffy.

slide42

They’re composed of the same

Elements, but different

ratios of those elements

slide43

I’ve got a bad

feeling about this

In fact, what if you could change

the qualities of an element from,

say cold & wet to cold and dry?

slide44

You could turn anything into anything

else, which is the basis of our

great science of alchemy. For

Example, you could turn this

bunny into…

Uh oh, here it comes.

slide45

How humiliating.

…a floating dog head…

slide46

…or pigeons pulling a

Roman chariot…

Just wait till they make a statue of

you

slide47

…or a bush dressed as a human…

This is the worst one ever.

slide48

This brings us to our original topic:

The earth as the center of the universe.

At last, back to normal.

I much prefer Plato

slide49

If the earth were not the center of

the universe, a dropped object

would fall sideways toward the center

of the universe, which of course isn’t

what happens.

slide50

The formation of the earth itself

during creation can be seen as particles

clustering around the center of

the universe, competing for that center spot.

slide51

What other evidence is there

that the earth is the center of the universe?

slide52

The orbiting of the planets & stars around the earth.

Even you barbarians who say you don’t believe

in my Geocentric (earth-at-the-center-of-the-universe)

Theory still talk about how the sun rises in the east

& sets in the west.

slide55

But do terrestrial elements

travel in perfect circles?

slide56

Not unless you live in Thrace

or some other barbarian infested hole.

Therefore, there must be a fifth

celestial element, ether which is perfect,

changeless, and weightless, and therefore

moves in perfect circles. And we already proved …..

slide58

So let’s see how it all fits together in a flowchart.

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

slide59

***

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

Isaac Newton fuses these ideas w/calculus into theory of universal gravity Same laws apply on earth as in heavens

Scientific method fusing math, experiment & Aristotelian logic  Belief we can understand, predict & manipulate laws of nature

Scientific basis for rapid progress of Industrial Rev. in 1800s (FC. 117)

slide60

Greek theory of elements

in hierarchical order?

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

slide61

Greek theory of elements

In hierarchical order:

Fire: Hot & Dry

Air: Hot & Wet

Water: Cold & Wet

Earth: Cold & Dry

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

slide62

Greek theory of elements

In hierarchical order:

Fire: Hot & Dry

Air: Hot & Wet

Water: Cold & Wet

Earth: Cold & Dry

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

slide63

Greek theory of elements

In hierarchical order:

Fire: Hot & Dry

Air: Hot & Wet

Water: Cold & Wet

Earth: Cold & Dry

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

slide64

Greek theory of elements

In hierarchical order:

Fire: Hot & Dry

Air: Hot & Wet

Water: Cold & Wet

Earth: Cold & Dry

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

slide65

Greek theory of elements

In hierarchical order:

Fire: Hot & Dry

Air: Hot & Wet

Water: Cold & Wet

Earth: Cold & Dry

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

slide66

Greek theory of elements

In hierarchical order:

Fire: Hot & Dry

Air: Hot & Wet

Water: Cold & Wet

Earth: Cold & Dry

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

slide67

Greek theory of elements

In hierarchical order:

Fire: Hot & Dry

Air: Hot & Wet

Water: Cold & Wet

Earth: Cold & Dry

Attacking 1 part of Aristotle’s interlocking theories involved doing what?

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

slide68

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

How did Ren. Help dismantle Aristotle?

slide69

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

slide70

The University of Padua was where many pioneers of the Scientific Revolution worked. Being under Venice, which had bad relations with the Church since it traded with Muslims, it had an unusual degree of academic freedom & was a major center for new scientific findings in the Renaissance.

slide71

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

Who especially backed Aristotle?

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

slide72

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

slide73

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (such as?)How do they explain these new phenomena?

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

slide74

The appearance of a supernova explosion in 1572 and a comet 5 years later seemed to contradict Aristotle’s theory of perfectly circular orbits and a constant unchanging universe made up of perfect and unchanging ether.

slide75

More than 400 years after this supernova explosion, NASA scientists saw its remnants & compiled this composite photograph of it.

slide76

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

When new astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict AristotleHow do they explain these new phenomena?

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

slide77

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

slide78

From earth’s perspective, planets further from the sun seemed to move backwards as the earth passed them on its inner orbit. Such retrogradations seemed to contradict Aristotle’s idea of perfect circular orbits. The answer was to tack perfect circular epicycles onto the other planets’ orbits, thus explaining the retrogradations and keeping all planetary motions circular. However, by 1500, the prevailing model of the universe was burdened with some 80 such epicycles.

slide79

A simplified diagram of the Ptolemaic model of the universe. In addition to the seven crystalline orbits around the earth shown here were a sphere each for the stars, heaven, and the mechanism God had created to drive the universe.

slide80

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

First main challenge

to me?

slide81

Copernicus (1473-1543)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

One advantage over geocentric theory?

slide82

Copernicus (1473-1543)

- U. of Padua more freedom

 Cop. had theory in 1512

Not published till 1543

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

slide83

Copernicus (1473-1543)

- U. of Padua more freedom

 Cop. Had theory in 1512

Not published till 1543

-Revived & revised old geom.

solutioncut # epicycles

8034  Several questions:

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

slide84

Copernicus (1473-1543)

- U. of Padua more freedom

 Cop. Had theory in 1512

Not published till 1543

-Revived & revised old geom.

solutioncut # epicycles

8034  Several questions:

1) Center of univ.?

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

slide85

Copernicus (1473-1543)

- U. of Padua more freedom

 Cop. Had theory in 1512

Not published till 1543

-Revived & revised old geom.

solutioncut # epicycles

8034  Several questions:

1) Center of univ.?

=center of earth's orbit

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

slide86

One implication of Copernicus’ theory was that, with the sun at the center, the earth must turn on its axis, which was a lot simpler than making everything orbit the earth.

A major objection to this was that, since the stars and other celestial objects were supposedly weightless, it made more sense to move them instead of the earth where all the weight of the universe was concentrated.

This, in turn would imply that the universe must extend beyond the solar system, because the stars seem more fixed (or move more slowly) than the planets, and so must be much farther away.

slide87

Copernicus (1473-1543)

- U. of Padua more freedom

 Cop. Had theory in 1512

Not published till 1543

-Revived & revised old geom.

solutioncut # epicycles

8034  Several questions:

1) Center of univ.?

=center of earth's orbit

2) If Earth rotates WE

why aren't winds EW

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

slide88

Copernicus (1473-1543)

- U. of Padua more freedom

 Cop. Had theory in 1512

Not published till 1543

-Revived & revised old geom.

solutioncut # epicycles

8034  Several questions:

1) Center of univ.?

=center of earth's orbit

2) If Earth rotates WE

why aren't winds EW

Rotate in sync. w/earth

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

slide90

Copernicus (1473- 1543)

-Nicolas Koppernigk

-U. of Padua->more free.

->Had theory since 1512

->Not publish. till 1543

-Revived & revised old

geometric solution

->Cut # epicycles 80->34

1) What is center of univ?

->Center of earth's orbit

2) If Earth rotates W->E

why aren't winds E->W

->Blow in sync w/earth

Who’s next?

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

slide91

Tycho Brahe was a Danish astronomer and flamboyant character who once got into a duel with another mathematician over a mathematical formula. Since neither could prove the other wrong, they decided to settle the matter with a duel in which the front part of Tycho’s nose got chopped off. Therefore, he had a new one made of brass, carrying glue with him to reattach it when necessary. Tycho also had a pet moose or elk that he used for entertaining guests. Unfortunately, one night it got drunk on some beer, fell down the stairs, and died.**

slide92

In addition, Tycho’s right eye was larger than his left from squinting while making observations through his armillary sphere, a celestial globe used to plot the motion of the stars around the Earth. It was the prime instrument of all astronomers in determining celestial positions until the invention of the European telescope in the 1600s.

slide93

As a reward for saving Frederick II of Denmark from drowning, he was awarded with his own island, Hven, where he could build an observatory with oversized armillary spheres for more accurate observations.

slide94

Brahe’s celestial globe, known as an armillary sphere, which was used to plot the motion of the stars around the Earth. It was the prime instrument of all astronomers in determining celestial positions until the invention of the European telescope in the 1600s. The larger the instrument, the more accurate the measurements.

The Portuguese flag (below) has an armillary sphere represented on it to commemorate that country’s role in the exploration of the planet.

slide95

Most astronomers agreed that the supernova of 1572 took place inside the moon’s orbit, and thus was made of changeable terrestrial materials. However, based on his own observations that showed no daily change against the background of other fixed stars, Tycho claimed that the supernova existed beyond the moon’s orbit. This would put it in unchangeable ethereal space, which would be impossible according to current theories of the cosmos. Using similar measurements, he also showed that the comet of 1579 must exist beyond the terrestrial sphere in “unchanging” ethereal space. This was the first major challenge to Aristotle’s theory of immutable space.

slide96

In the Tychonic model of the universe, the Moon & Sun (blue orbits) circle the Earth, while Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, & Saturn (orange orbits) revolve around the Sun. Around all is a sphere of fixed stars.Tycho'smodel is geometrically identical to that of Copernicus. All that is changed is what is moving & what is fixed-- the sun or the earth.**

slide97

The legend surrounding Brahe’s death was that he was at a party and, out of politeness to his host failed to get up to relieve his bladder. By the time he did try to go, his bladder was blocked from waiting too long. An infection developed and he died eleven days later. When his body was exhumed in 1996, analysis of his hair follicles showed he most likely died from mercury poisoning, a common enough malady back when people thought mercury had medicinal qualities. Ivan IV of Russia probably died from the same thing.

slide98

Kepler’s music of the spheres. Kepler, who once barely got his mother acquitted of witchcraft charges, was obsessed with the mystical qualities of numbers. In addition to first supporting his family by making astrological charts, he also tried to correlate the relative distances of the planets from each other by fitting different regular geometric solids inside one another.

slide99

He also believed in the Pythagorean idea of the"music of the spheres” and proposed that the ellipticities of the planetary orbits were determined by the tunes they hummed as they made their way through the heavens.

slide100

Amazingly, his figures corresponded closely to Tycho Brahe's measurements:

Kepler’s Harmony Brahe’s measurements

Planet Aphelion Perihelion Aphelion Perihelion

distance distance distance distance

Mercury 0.476 0.308 0.470 0.307

Venus 0.726 0.716 0.729 0.719

Earth 1.017 0.983 1.018 0.982

Mars 1.661 1.384 1.665 1.382

Jupiter 5.464 4.948 5.451 4.949

Saturn 10.118 8.994 10.052 8.968

slide101

Copernicus (1473- 1543)

-Nicolas Koppernigk

-U. of Padua->more free.

->Had theory since 1512

->Not publish. till 1543

-Revived & revised old

geometric solution

->Cut # epicycles 80->34

1) What is center of univ?

->Center of earth's orbit

2) If Earth rotates W->E

why aren't winds E->W

->Blow in sync w/earth

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

What did Kepler do?

slide102

Copernicus (1473- 1543)

-Nicolas Koppernigk

-U. of Padua->more free.

->Had theory since 1512

->Not publish. till 1543

-Revived & revised old

geometric solution

->Cut # epicycles 80->34

1) What is center of univ?

->Center of earth's orbit

2) If Earth rotates W->E

why aren't winds E->W

->Blow in sync w/earth

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

slide103

Copernicus (1473- 1543)

-Nicolas Koppernigk

-U. of Padua->more free.

->Had theory since 1512

->Not publish. till 1543

-Revived & revised old

geometric solution

->Cut # epicycles 80->34

1) What is center of univ?

->Center of earth's orbit

2) If Earth rotates W->E

why aren't winds E->W

->Blow in sync w/earth

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Ellipti. orbit w/at least 1 foci

inside sun, exc. for Saturn

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

slide105

Copernicus (1473- 1543)

-Nicolas Koppernigk

-U. of Padua->more free.

->Had theory since 1512

->Not publish. till 1543

-Revived & revised old

geometric solution

->Cut # epicycles 80->34

1) What is center of univ?

->Center of earth's orbit

2) If Earth rotates W->E

why aren't winds E->W

->Blow in sync w/earth

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Ellipti. orbit w/at least 1 foci

inside sun, exc. for Saturn

foci exc. Jupiter

2) Planet sweeps equal areas

in equal times 

 Helped explain gravity

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

slide106

Since the sun’s gravity (which Kepler had no concept of) slows down a planet as it orbits away from the sun, it will “carve out” a smaller arc, but an equally big piece of the “pie” since the lines from the arc to the sun are so much longer.

Perihelion

Aphelion

slide107

Copernicus (1473- 1543)

-Nicolas Koppernigk

-U. of Padua->more free.

->Had theory since 1512

->Not publish. till 1543

-Revived & revised old

geometric solution

->Cut # epicycles 80->34

1) What is center of univ?

->Center of earth's orbit

2) If Earth rotates W->E

why aren't winds E->W

->Blow in sync w/earth

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Ellipti. orbit w/at least 1 foci

inside sun, exc. for Saturn

foci exc. Jupiter

2) Planet sweeps equal areas

in equal times 

 Helped explain gravity

3) a3=p2 [a=astron units from

sun; p=time of orbit];

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

slide108

Kepler’s third law states that the square of the time of an orbital period is proportional to the cube of the length of the distance of the planet from the sun at the furthest point of the ellipse. If we use the distance of the earth to the sun (1 astronomical unit or AU) as the unit by which we measure other planets’ distance to the sun, we get the following:

Planet Distance in A.U. A3 Period in yrs. P2 P2 /R3

Mercury 0.387 .0580 .241 .0581 1

Venus 0.723 .378 .615 .378 1

Earth 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1

Mars 1.524 3.54 1.881 3.538 1

Left: Two planets are shown on orbits that are the same shape, but the larger orbit is 1.5874 times bigger than the smaller. Notice that the planet on the larger orbit takes twice as long to go around the star.

http://www.pd.astro.it/hosted/PlanetV/planetarium/L14_03S.html

slide109

This is something I found on a website about Kepler’s laws. I don’t know what it means, except that it has something to do with math. But I thought it looked really cool. Enjoy

slide110

Copernicus (1473- 1543)

-Nicolas Koppernigk

-U. of Padua->more free.

->Had theory since 1512

->Not publish. till 1543

-Revived & revised old

geometric solution

->Cut # epicycles 80->34

1) What is center of univ?

->Center of earth's orbit

2) If Earth rotates W->E

why aren't winds E->W

->Blow in sync w/earth

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Ellipti. orbit w/at least 1 foci

i inside sun, exc. for Saturn

foci exc. Jupiter

2) Planet sweeps equal areas

in equal times 

 Helped explain gravity

3) a3=p2 [a=astron units from

sun; p=time of orbit];

- Jupit. ~5 au & ~11 yrs

 ~125 & ~121

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

slide111

**Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) originally wanted to be a monk, but his father pressured him to study medicine. After giving that up, he pursued his real passion, math, setting himself up as a private tutor and later getting a public appointment in Florence. His fame rapidly spread, and he was even invited to give a lecture on the size and location of Hell. After his father’s death in 1591, he got an appointment at the University of Padua.

slide112

Some of Galileo’s most famous experiments had to do with the velocity of falling objects. According to Aristotle, if one dropped two objects, the heavier object would fall faster in proportion to its weight. Amazingly, in the 1800 years since Aristotle lived no one had bothered to test this theory until Galileo took it on and disproved it. He did it by rolling balls of different weight down various inclined ramps, timing their speed and acceleration with a series of bells that rang as the balls passed them.

slide113

Contrary to popular belief, Galileo did not actually drop objects from the Leaning Tower of Pisa

slide114

Galileo’s work on pendulums (l.) influenced the Dutch scientist, Christian Huygens, whose clock (r.) helped lead to the later development of the chronometer

slide116

Most Greeks, such as Euclid and Plato believed that light was something that emanated from the eyes to the object seen. Democritus and the atomists claimed light went from the object to the eye. Galen discounted this with the common sense argument that it’s absurd to think that the light encompassing a mountain could fit in your eye or that one object viewed by thousands of people could generate enough light for everyone to see. (Many children and even college students still conceive of light in this fashion.)

slide117

In the 11th century, the Arabs had largely debunked this idea about sight, using the refraction of light to show that the light goes from the object to the eye. The image to the left is a study of eyes from Ibn al-Haytham's Optics showing the principal tunics, humours and the optic nerves connecting the eyeballs to the brain.

slide118

No one knows for sure how magnifying an image with a concave lens was started. One theory is that a medieval glass maker looked through some accidentally warped glass and got the idea. Since it was most likely an illiterate artisan instead of an academic who found it, he probably didn’t write about it. However, as early as the 1300s it’s clear that eye glasses were in common use among the rich and were a sign of status and literacy as seen in Raphael’s portrait of Pope Leo X.

slide119

However, the Church viewed lenses somewhat suspiciously, since, by magnifying images they distorted the true image of God’s creation. Besides that, theologians pointed out that God’s first creation was light. Thus treating light as a mere physical phenomenon was enquiring into the physics of transubstantiation. This wasn’t a major problem until a man named Galileo pointed his telescope toward the stars.

Crystal reading stones were seen as superior to glass. In Venice in the 1300s, there was a law against eyeglass makers telling customers they were selling them crystal when it was only glass.

slide120

The first telescope is attributed to a Dutch lens maker, Hans Lippershey. Supposedly, it was an accidental discovery by children playing with Lippershey’s lenses and inadvertently viewing through one convex lens lined up with a concave lense to produce the magnifying effect.

slide121

Galileo made his own with a magnification of 10X (later 32X) even grinding his own lenses. Getting people just to look through his telescope was often hard because of the common belief that it distorted the true image and even created mirages.

slide122

The Venetian Senate bought Galileo’s telescope as an early warning system against attack. Venetian merchants wanted to use it to get first shot at buying incoming cargoes.

Left: Galileo demonstrating his telescope to the doge of Venice.

slide124

The impact of that first telescope can better be appreciated by imagining how our views of the universe might change if our technology increased our view of the universe by a factor of ten times. Galileo's findings were probably more disturbing. He saw the sun's perfection marred by sunspots and the moon's perfection marred by craters. He also saw four moons orbiting Jupiter.

Below: The heliocentric universe, as envisioned by Galileo, still did not incorporate Kepler’s theory of elliptical orbits.

slide125

In his book, The Starry Messenger (1611), he reported these disturbing findings and spread the news across Europe. Most people could not understand Kepler's math, but anyone with access to a telescope could see for himself the moon's craters and Jupiter's moons.

slide126

The phases of Venus were a convincing demonstration, contrary to the Ptolemaic system, of the heliocentric solar system, by showing that the phases of Venus result from its position in the solar system between us and the sun. Mercury also exhibits phases but it’s much harder to observe than Venus. The Ptolemaic system could explain only some of the phases exhibited by Venus.

slide127

The Church, trying to preserve the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic view of the universe, clamped down on Galileo and his book, making him promise not to preach his views. However, in 1632, Galileo published a new book, Dialogue on the Great World Systems, which technically did not preach the Copernican theory (which Galileo believed in), but presented both views "equally" in a dialogue where the advocate of the Church and Aristotelian view was named Simplicius (Simpleton).

slide128

Galileo was quickly faced with the Inquisition and the threat of torture. His trial largely centered on whether the ban of 1616 prohibited him from preaching Copernicus’ theories (as he claimed, even producing a signed Church certificate to that effect) or from discussing it at all (as the Church claimed). In the end, he was found guilty of “vehement suspicion of heresy”, his Dialogue was added to the Index of Prohibited Books, and he was put under house arrest for life.****

slide129

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Elliptical orbit w/ both foci inside sun, exc. for Saturn

foci exc. Jupiter

2) Planet sweeps equal areas

in equal times 

 Helped explain gravity

3) a3=p2 [a=astron units from

sun; p=time of orbit];

- Jupit. ~5 au & ~11 yrs

 ~125 & ~121

Galileo (1564-1642) :

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

slide130

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Elliptical orbit w/ both foci inside sun, exc. for Saturn

foci exc. Jupiter

2) Planet sweeps equal areas

in equal times 

 Helped explain gravity

3) a3=p2 [a=astron units from

sun; p=time of orbit];

- Jupit. ~5 au & ~11 yrs

 ~125 & ~121

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

slide131

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Elliptical orbit w/ both foci inside sun, exc. for Saturn

foci exc. Jupiter

2) Planet sweeps equal areas

in equal times 

 Helped explain gravity

3) a3=p2 [a=astron units from

sun; p=time of orbit];

- Jupit. ~5 au & ~11 yrs

 ~125 & ~121

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

slide132

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Elliptical orbit w/ both foci inside sun, exc. for Saturn

foci exc. Jupiter

2) Planet sweeps equal areas

in equal times 

 Helped explain gravity

3) a3=p2 [a=astron units from

sun; p=time of orbit];

- Jupit. ~5 au & ~11 yrs

 ~125 & ~121

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

What did he see?

slide133

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Elliptical orbit w/ both foci inside sun, exc. for Saturn

foci exc. Jupiter

2) Planet sweeps equal areas

in equal times 

 Helped explain gravity

3) a3=p2 [a=astron units from

sun; p=time of orbit];

- Jupit. ~5 au & ~11 yrs

 ~125 & ~121

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

slide134

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Elliptical orbit w/ both foci inside sun, exc. for Saturn

foci exc. Jupiter

2) Planet sweeps equal areas

in equal times 

 Helped explain gravity

3) a3=p2 [a=astron units from

sun; p=time of orbit];

- Jupit. ~5 au & ~11 yrs

 ~125 & ~121

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

slide135

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Elliptical orbit w/ both foci inside sun, exc. for Saturn

foci exc. Jupiter

2) Planet sweeps equal areas

in equal times 

 Helped explain gravity

3) a3=p2 [a=astron units from

sun; p=time of orbit];

- Jupit. ~5 au & ~11 yrs

 ~125 & ~121

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

Church reaction & Galileo’s promise?

slide136

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Elliptical orbit w/ both foci inside sun, exc. for Saturn

foci exc. Jupiter

2) Planet sweeps equal areas

in equal times 

 Helped explain gravity

3) a3=p2 [a=astron units from

sun; p=time of orbit];

- Jupit. ~5 au & ~11 yrs

 ~125 & ~121

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

slide137

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Elliptical orbit w/ both foci inside sun, exc. for Saturn

foci exc. Jupiter

2) Planet sweeps equal areas

in equal times 

 Helped explain gravity

3) a3=p2 [a=astron units from

sun; p=time of orbit];

- Jupit. ~5 au & ~11 yrs

 ~125 & ~121

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

slide138

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Elliptical orbit w/ both foci inside sun, exc. for Saturn

foci exc. Jupiter

2) Planet sweeps equal areas

in equal times 

 Helped explain gravity

3) a3=p2 [a=astron units from

sun; p=time of orbit];

- Jupit. ~5 au & ~11 yrs

 ~125 & ~121

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

Dialogue on Great

World systems (1632)

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

slide139

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Elliptical orbit w/ both foci inside sun, exc. for Saturn

foci exc. Jupiter

2) Planet sweeps equal areas

in equal times 

 Helped explain gravity

3) a3=p2 [a=astron units from

sun; p=time of orbit];

- Jupit. ~5 au & ~11 yrs

 ~125 & ~121

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

Dialogue on Great

World systems (1632)

 Galileo silenced by

Inquisition, but too late

to stop spread of info

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

slide140

Johannes Kepler

- T. Brahe's detailed observ’s

 New theory: Planets orbit

sun which orbits earth

- Kepler uses Brahe’s data

 3 laws

1) Elliptical orbit w/ both foci inside sun, exc. for Saturn

foci exc. Jupiter

2) Planet sweeps equal areas

in equal times 

 Helped explain gravity

3) a3=p2 [a=astron units from

sun; p=time of orbit];

- Jupit. ~5 au & ~11 yrs

 ~125 & ~121

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

Dialogue on Great

World systems (1632)

 Galileo silenced by

Inquisition, but too late

to stop spread of info Growing confusion

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

slide141

Three competing models of the universe in the 1600s: the Ptolemaic geocentric universe (upper left), the heliocentric universe (lower left), and Tycho Brahe’s combined model (below) with the planets orbiting the sun while it orbited earth.

slide142

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

Dialogue on Great

World systems (1632)

 Galileo silenced by

Inquisition, but too late

to stop spread of info Growing confusion

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

slide143

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

Dialogue on Great

World systems (1632)

 Galileo silenced by

Inquisition, but too late

to stop spread of info Growing confusion

1) Why don’t planets fly

out of orbit?

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

slide144

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

Dialogue on Great

World systems (1632)

 Galileo silenced by

Inquisition, but too late

to stop spread of info Growing confusion

1) Why don’t planets fly

out of orbit?

 Gilbert says magnetism

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

slide145

William Gilbert, whose theory of “magnetic gravity”, though wrong, helped pave the way for other theories.

William Gilbert’s diagram showing the earth as a giant lodestone

slide146

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

Dialogue on Great

World systems (1632)

 Galileo silenced by

Inquisition, but too late

to stop spread of info Growing confusion

1) Why don’t planets fly

out of orbit?

 Gilbert says magnetism

 Roberval's gravity

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

slide147

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

Dialogue on Great

World systems (1632)

 Galileo silenced by

Inquisition, but too late

to stop spread of info Growing confusion

1) Why don’t planets fly

out of orbit?

 Gilbert says magnetism

 Roberval's gravity

2) Why don’t planets fall

to earth?

Why don’t planets crash together?

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

slide148

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

Dialogue on Great

World systems (1632)

 Galileo silenced by

Inquisition, but too late

to stop spread of info Growing confusion

1) Why don’t planets fly

out of orbit?

 Gilbert says magnetism

 Roberval's gravity

2) Why don’t planets fall

to earth?

 Borelli's centrifugal force

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

slide149

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

Dialogue on Great

World systems (1632)

 Galileo silenced by

Inquisition, but too late

to stop spread of info Growing confusion

1) Why don’t planets fly

out of orbit?

 Gilbert says magnetism

 Roberval's gravity

2) Why don’t planets fall

to earth?

 Borelli's centrifugal force

 Huygen's math proof

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

slide150

Borelli’s theory of centrifugal force, which has something to do with a rock on the end of a string, helped explain why the sun’s gravity didn’t pull planets down to a fiery death.

slide151

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

Dialogue on Great

World systems (1632)

 Galileo silenced by

Inquisition, but too late

to stop spread of info Growing confusion

1) Why don’t planets fly

out of orbit?

 Gilbert says magnetism

 Roberval's gravity

2) Why don’t planets fall

to earth?

 Borelli's centrifugal force

 Huygen's math proof

- Arist's law of motion

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

law of motion?

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

slide152

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

Dialogue on Great

World systems (1632)

 Galileo silenced by

Inquisition, but too late

to stop spread of info Growing confusion

1) Why don’t planets fly

out of orbit?

 Gilbert says magnetism

 Roberval's gravity

2) Why don’t planets fall

to earth?

 Borelli's centrifugal force

 Huygen's math proof

- Arist's law of motion

 Law of impetus

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

law of motion?

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

slide153

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

Dialogue on Great

World systems (1632)

 Galileo silenced by

Inquisition, but too late

to stop spread of info Growing confusion

1) Why don’t planets fly

out of orbit?

 Gilbert says magnetism

 Roberval's gravity

2) Why don’t planets fall

to earth?

 Borelli's centrifugal force

 Huygen's math proof

- Arist's law of motion

 Law of impetus

 Wrong but opens way

for new ideas

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Descarte’s law of motion?

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

slide154

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

Dialogue on Great

World systems (1632)

 Galileo silenced by

Inquisition, but too late

to stop spread of info Growing confusion

1) Why don’t planets fly

out of orbit?

 Gilbert says magnetism

 Roberval's gravity

2) Why don’t planets fall

to earth?

 Borelli's centrifugal force

 Huygen's math proof

- Arist's law of motion

 Law of impetus

 Wrong but opens way

for new ideas

 Descarte's law of inertia

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

slide159

Descartes’ diagram showing space full of vertices of ether. Notice its similarity to Descartes’ nose.

slide160

Galileo (1564-1642)

- Experiments on velocities:

1608- Telesc. 3X 10X

- Idea known since 1200s

- Saw 10x stars, Jupiter’s 4

moons, sunspots & moon

craters

Starry Messenger (1610)

 Debunks geocentric Theory

 Promise “not to preach”

- Liberal pope Urban VIII

Dialogue on Great

World systems (1632)

 Galileo silenced by

Inquisition, but too late

to stop spread of info Growing confusion

1) Why don’t planets fly

out of orbit?

 Gilbert says magnetism

 Roberval's gravity

2) Why don’t planets fall

to earth?

 Borelli's centrifugal force

 Huygen's math proof

- Arist's law of motion

 Law of impetus

 Wrong but opens way

for new ideas

 Descarte's law of inertia

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

Who pulled it together?

slide161

Isaac Newton (1642-1727), in a sense, the founder of modern science with his groundbreaking work in optics, telescopes, math, physics, and astronomy.

slide162

By shining light through two prisms & showing the 2nd prism had no further effect on the light, Newton showed that, rather than creating different colors of light, as was then believed, a prism merely separated a beam of light into its different colors corresponding to their wavelengths.

slide163

Newton’s reflecting telescope. By using mirrors instead of refracting lenses, Newton’s telescope could get a much clearer and more magnified image in a smaller chamber.

slide164

While Newton probably invented calculus first, Leibnitz also invented it independently & made it public first. Therefore his name for the math (calculus), symbols, and methodology are the ones primarily used today

slide191

Newton’s Synthesis

Just consider the list of the various ideas Newton synthesized into the new science, also weeding out the parts that were wrong:

• Copernicus’ heliocentric theory, but still clinging to many old elements of the

Ptolemaic world view

• Kepler’s elliptical orbits but without gravity to explain a planet’s variable speed

• William Gilbert’s theory of magnetic gravity, which though wrong, replaced the

old idea of objects moving to a natural resting place

• Roberval’s theory of universal gravity, but without mathematical proof

• Alphonse Borelli theory that centrifugal force kept planets from falling into the

sun, but without mathematical proof.

• Huygens’ mathematical proof for centrifugal force, but belief in perfect circular

motion

• Descarte’s discovery of the law of inertia, but belief in space full of ether

• Galileo’s monumental work in astronomy, the laws of motion and math

slide192

Using Kepler’s 3rd law, Newton figured that gravitational force is inversely

proportional to the square of the distance between two masses.

He delayed publishing the Principia Mathematica until 1687 because he wasn’t sure if one should measure the gravitational pull of objects from their surfaces or centers. He thought the center, and was correct, but he wanted to be sure.

He was right.

slide193

Growing confusion

- Arist's law of motion

->Law of impetus

->Wrong but opens way

for new ideas

->Descarte's law of

inertia

- Why don’t planets fly out

of orbit?

->Gilbert’s magnetism

-> Roberval's gravity

- Why don’t planets fall

to earth?

->Borelli's centrif. force

->Huygen's math proof

Newton's synthesis

- Many diff. theories

- Newton’s 3rd law

->Gravity inversely

proportional to distance

b/w centers of 2 masses

Isaac Newton fuses these ideas w/calculus into theory of universal gravity The significance of this theory?

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

slide194

Growing confusion

- Arist's law of motion

->Law of impetus

->Wrong but opens way

for new ideas

->Descarte's law of

inertia

- Why don’t planets fly out

of orbit?

->Gilbert’s magnetism

-> Roberval's gravity

- Why don’t planets fall

to earth?

->Borelli's centrif. force

->Huygen's math proof

Newton's synthesis

- Many diff. theories

- Newton’s 3rd law

->Gravity inversely

proportional to distance

b/w centers of 2 masses

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

Isaac Newton fuses these ideas w/calculus into theory of universal gravity Same laws apply on earth as in heavens

slide195

Growing confusion

- Arist's law of motion

->Law of impetus

->Wrong but opens way

for new ideas

->Descarte's law of

inertia

- Why don’t planets fly out

of orbit?

->Gilbert’s magnetism

-> Roberval's gravity

- Why don’t planets fall

to earth?

->Borelli's centrif. force

->Huygen's math proof

Newton's synthesis

-Many diff. theories

- Newton’s 3rd law

->Gravity inversely

proportional to distance

b/w centers of masses

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

Isaac Newton fuses these ideas w/calculus into theory of universal gravity Same laws apply on earth as in heavens

Scientific method fusing math, experiment & Aristotelian logic  Belief we can understand, predict & manipulate laws of nature

slide196

Growing confusion

- Arist's law of motion

->Law of impetus

->Wrong but opens way

for new ideas

->Descarte's law of

inertia

- Why don’t planets fly out

of orbit?

->Gilbert’s magnetism

-> Roberval's gravity

- Why don’t planets fall

to earth?

->Borelli's centrif. force

->Huygen's math proof

Newton's synthesis

-Many diff. theories

Newton’s 3rd law

->Gravity inversely

proportional to distance

b/w centers of masses

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

Isaac Newton fuses these ideas w/calculus into theory of universal gravity Same laws apply on earth as in heavens

Scientific method fusing math, experiment & Aristotelian logic  Belief we can understand, predict & manipulate laws of nature

slide198

The scientific method fusing math, experiment & Aristotelian logic 

The belief we can understand, predict & manipulate the laws of nature

slide199

The scientific method fusing math, experiment & Aristotelian logic 

The belief we can understand, predict & manipulate the laws of nature

slide200

Growing confusion

- Arist's law of motion

->Law of impetus

->Wrong but opens way

for new ideas

->Descarte's law of

inertia

- Why don’t planets fly out

of orbit?

->Gilbert’s magnetism

->Roberval's gravity

- Why don’t planets fall

to earth?

->Borelli's centrif. force

->Huygen's math proof

Newton's synthesis

-Many diff. theories

Newton’s 3rd law

->Gravity inversely

proportional to distance

b/w centers of masses

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

Isaac Newton fuses these ideas w/calculus into theory of universal gravity Same laws apply on earth as in heavens

Scientific method fusing math, experiment & Aristotelian logic  Belief we can understand, predict & manipulate laws of nature

Scientific basis for rapid progress of Industrial Rev. in 1800s (FC. 117)

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FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

Isaac Newton fuses these ideas w/calculus into theory of universal gravity Same laws apply on earth as in heavens

Scientific method fusing math, experiment & Aristotelian logic  Belief we can understand, predict & manipulate laws of nature

Scientific basis for rapid progress of Industrial Rev. in 1800s (FC. 117)