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The French Revolution. Mr. Millhouse World History AP Hebron High School. Preliminary Stage. Causes of the French Revolution. The Enlightenment. Political & Legal Equality (Rousseau) Personal Freedoms (Voltaire) Social Contract (Hobbes) Popular Sovereignty & Natural Rights (Locke)

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the french revolution

The French Revolution

Mr. Millhouse

World History AP

Hebron High School

the enlightenment
The Enlightenment
  • Political & Legal Equality (Rousseau)
  • Personal Freedoms (Voltaire)
  • Social Contract (Hobbes)
  • Popular Sovereignty & Natural Rights (Locke)
  • Global Influence of Enlightenment Values
    • American Revolution
  • Overthrow the ancien régime (old order)
financial crisis
Financial Crisis
  • During 1780s, 50% of revenue went to pay off debts
    • American Revolution?
    • Lavish lifestyle of the monarchy
  • Series of bad harvests 1787 & 1788
    • Bread prices went up 50% in 1789
  • Need for tax reform
    • Louis XVI hoped to raise taxes on ancien régime
    • Aristocracy resisted reforms
    • Forced Louis to call the Estates-General for the first time since 1614
estates general
Estates General
  • First Estate: 100,000 Catholic clergy
    • Did not pay taxes
  • Second Estate: 400,000 nobles
    • Exempt from many taxes
  • Third Estate: Rest of Population
    • Sans-culottes
    • Provided bulk of French tax revenue
discussion questions
Discussion Questions

What were the similarities between the long-term causes of the American and French Revolutions? Differences?

the national assembly
The National Assembly

June 20, 1789

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

storming of the bastille
Storming of the Bastille

French citizens fearing King Louis XVI would use violence to put down the revolution stormed the Bastille on 14 July 1789

declaration of rights of man and the citizen
Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen
  • Passed by the National Assembly on August 26, 1789
  • Not a Constitution but a statement of general principals
    • Defines individual and collective rights
    • Does not address women or slavery
women s march
Women’s March

Storming of Versailles

October 1, 1789

radicals take control
Radicals Take Control

Arrest of Louis XVI

August 10, 1792

execution of louis xvi
Execution of Louis XVI

January 21, 1793

radical reforms of the jacobins
Radical Reforms of the Jacobins
  • Universal adult male suffrage
  • Abolished slavery
    • Fuels Haitian Revolution
  • Universal military conscription
  • Increased rights of women
    • Could not participate in politics
  • Attacked Catholicism
  • Spirit of nationalism
  • Set price controls & seized crops from farmers
reign of terror
Reign of Terror

“The first maxim of our politics ought to be to lead the people by means of reason and the enemies of the people by terror.”

  • Led by Maximilien Robespierre
  • According to records 16,000+ died under the guillotine
    • Historians estimate could be as high as 40,000
end of the terror
End of the Terror

July 28, 1794

discussion question
Discussion Question

How were the actions of American radicals and French radicals similar? How were they different?

napoleon bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Moderate government, the Directory, rules for four years following Reign of Terror
    • Failed to solve economic problems of France
  • Napoleon staged a coup d’etat in 1799
    • Becomes emperor in 1804
domestic policies of napoleon
Domestic Policies of Napoleon
  • Maintained some rights gainedduring the revolution
    • Freedom of religion
    • Napoleonic Code (Civil Code)
    • Schools and universities
  • Reversed other gains
    • Rights of women
    • Freedom of expression
  • Reformed economy
    • Revised tax code
    • Central bank
napoleon s empire
Napoleon’s Empire

Left: Napoleon’s Empire by 1912

Above: Napoleon’s Retreat from Russia

napoleon on elba
Napoleon on Elba

This should NOT be a prison

legacy of the french revolution
Legacy of the French Revolution
  • Global Independence movements
    • Haitian Revolution
    • Latin American independence
      • Triggered by Napoleon’s invasion of Spain
    • Egypt broke away from Ottoman Empire
  • Slave Trade and Slavery
    • England abolished slave trade in 1807; slavery in 1833
    • Brazil—Last to abolish slavery (1888)
  • Abolition of serfdom
    • Except in Russia
legacy of the french revolution32
Legacy of the French Revolution
  • Women’s Rights
    • Played major role in the revolutions
      • Sewing uniforms, nurses, running businesses, some even fought
    • Lost many rights after revolution
      • Napoleon
    • Feminist Movements
      • Mary Wollstonecraft
  • Spread of nationalism in Europe
    • German and Italian unification
    • Greek independence