equine dental abnormalities dentistry brendan kraus dvm photos courtesy leon scrutchfield dvm n.
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Equine Dental Abnormalities & Dentistry Brendan Kraus, DVM Photos courtesy Leon Scrutchfield,DVM. Equine Teeth. Horses evolved as a continuously grazing animal Free range horses graze 10-12 hours per day. Dental problems have been made worse by man altering the horse ’ s natural lifestyle

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equine dental abnormalities dentistry brendan kraus dvm photos courtesy leon scrutchfield dvm

Equine Dental Abnormalities& DentistryBrendan Kraus, DVMPhotos courtesy Leon Scrutchfield,DVM

equine teeth
Equine Teeth
  • Horses evolved as a continuously grazing animal
    • Free range horses graze 10-12 hours per day.
  • Dental problems have been made worse by man altering the horse’s natural lifestyle
    • Stalled horses eat grain or pelleted feed in short periods of time.
  • The composition of the diet has a great influence on the development of dental abnormalities
    • Lack of grazing to wear incisors
    • Lack of fiber mastication to wear cheek teeth
      • Lateral movement of jaw is important
equine teeth cont
Equine Teeth, cont.

Horses developed teeth suited to mastication of grass

  • High Crowns
    • Abrasives would wear out low-crowned teeth
  • Increased # of cusps
  • Complex pattern of enamel
  • Self sharpening (layers with different degrees of hardness)
  • Increased size of grinding teeth
  • Formation of grinding teeth into a battery (arcade)
hypsodont teeth
Hypsodont Teeth
  • Adult Teeth are continually erupting.
  • At least 2-3mm per year to allow for worn away tooth
  • Allows for dental abnormalities to compound themselves
  • Teeth will eventually slow down eruption, and “wear out”
horse tooth complex
Horse Tooth Complex
  • Enamel
  • Pulp/dentin complex
  • Cementum
veterinary dentistry
Veterinary Dentistry
  • The field has recently been advanced with the development of improved tools and sedatives
  • Artificially wear down the teeth with manual or power instrumentation
    • Correct problems that have developed
    • “Maintenance” to prevent problem development
    • Shaping of teeth to enhance use/performance
veterinary dentistry cont
Veterinary Dentistry, cont.
  • Help Promote Effective Chewing
  • Help Prevent Colic and Choke
  • Help protect the mouth’s soft tissues
  • Help prevent discomfort from the bit
  • Help prevent discomfort from the bridle
  • Help prevent neck and back pain
  • Help alleviate problems in the “Golden Years”
dental abnormality symptoms
NONE!

Slobber

Eat Slowly

Tilt Head

Quid

Head Toss

Chew the bit

Tail Swing

Bucking

Refuse collect or take lead

Facial swelling

Nasal discharge

Draining tracts

Dental Abnormality Symptoms
oral examination
Wash out feed material

Sedation

Stocks/Restraint

Full Mouth Speculum

Light source

Oral Examination
abnormalities
Sharp Enamel Points

Hooks

Ramps

Steps

Waves

Transverse Ridges

Incisors

Bite

Retained Caps

Periodontal Disease

Wolf Teeth

Abnormalities
caps retained deciduous premolars
Caps-Retained Deciduous Premolars
  • First 3 Cheek Teeth in Place at Birth
  • Permanents erupt in-caps shed
      • 2 Years Eight Months
      • 2 years Ten Months
      • 3 Years Eight Months
extractions
Extractions
  • Some teeth are beyond correction
  • Teeth which are loose, broken, or in the

wrong position may need to be extracted

  • Extraction can be easy or very difficult
  • Specialized equipment and sedation is

required.