cattle immunology n.
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CATTLE IMMUNOLOGY
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  1. CATTLE IMMUNOLOGY Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS Professor and Extension Program Leader Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas A&M University System College Station, TX 77843 http://extensionvetmed.tamu.edu

  2. INFECTIOUS VACCINES (ANTIGENS) • TYPES: • modified live vaccines – intramuscular, subcutaneous, intranasal • modified live vaccines (body temperature sensitive) – intranasal

  3. IMMUNITY DURATION: • life-time (infection established, cellular and humoral immunity) • one dose required • annual boosters may not be required

  4. CAUTION: • label restrictions (may be unapproved for pregnant cows/nursing calves) • ineffectiveness (following non-infectious vaccine)

  5. NON-INFECTIOUS VACCINES (ANTIGENS) • TYPES: • killed vaccines and bacterins – intramuscular, subcutaneous • toxoids and leukotoxoids – intramuscular, subcutaneous • modified live vaccines (body temperature sensitive) – intramuscular

  6. IMMUNITY DURATION: • 4 to 12 months (infection not established, humoral immunity) • primary dose required (priming) • secondary dose required – 3 to 6 weeks later (within 4 months) • annual or semiannual boosters required

  7. ANTISERA/ANTISERUM (ANTIBODIES) • TYPES: • antitoxins – subcutaneous • monoclonal antibody – oral

  8. DURATION IMMUNITY: • 2 to 6 weeks (humoral immunity)

  9. DNA RECOMBINANT VACCINES • None available for cattle

  10. VACCINE LABEL HANDLING INSTRUCTIONS • FOLLOW THE LABEL: • refrigerate in use and storage • use sanitary practices in use • keep out of sunlight in use • properly dispose of opened vials after use • abide expiration date of unopened vials

  11. VACCINE LABEL USE DIRECTIONS • FOLLOW THE LABEL: • dose • route(s) • withdrawal time for slaughter (21 to 60 days)

  12. VACCINE FAILURES • NO RESPONSE (efficacy, stress, malnutrition) • IMPROPER DOSE • IMPROPER ROUTE

  13. MISHANDLED (non-refrigerated, sunlight exposure, unsanitary) • STORED OPENED VIALS • EXPIRED VACCINE • POOR QUALITY VACCINE

  14. PRIMARY DOSE ONLY (non-infectious vaccine) • IMMUNITY DURATION EXPIRED • VACCINATION AFTER EXPOSURE (incubation period or latent period)

  15. Cow Herd Vaccines • Precalving Vaccination of Cows and Heifers (7 to 9 months of pregnancy or twice a year) • 4-way Viral BRD Vaccine • Pasteurella Bacterin & Leukotoxoid • Haemophilus Bacterin • 5-way Lepto Bacterin • 7-way or 8-way Blackleg Bacterin • Scour Vaccine • Vibrio Bacterin • Trich Vaccine

  16. Prebreeding Vaccination of Replacement Heifers and Bulls 1. 4-way Viral BRD Vaccine 2. Pasteurella Bacterin & Leukotoxoid 3. Haemophilus Bacterin 4. 5-way Lepto Bacterin 5. 7-way or 8-way Blackleg Bacterin 6. Vibrio Bacterin 7. Trich Vaccine (Heifers) 8. Anaplas Vaccine

  17. Calf Herd Vaccines • Postcalving Vaccination of Nursing Calves (2 to 3 months of age) • 4-way Viral BRD • Pasteurella Bacterin & Leukotoxoid • Haemophilus Bacterin • 5-way Lepto Bacterin • 7-way or 8-way Blackleg Bacterin

  18. Preweaning Vaccination of Nursing Calves (3 weeks before weaning) 1. 4-way Viral BRD Vaccine 2. Pasteurella Bacterin & Leukotoxoid 3. Haemophilus Bacterin 4. 5-way Lepto Bacterin 5. 7-way or 8-way Blackleg Bacterin 6. Bang’s Vaccine (Heifers)