MINISTRY of LABOUR and SOCIAL SECURITY Occupational Health and Safety Center. RISK ASSESSMENT . Content. Concepts of Hazard and Risk in the legislation of EU Risk Assessment What is a risk assessment? How do you do a risk assessment? How are the hazards identified?
MINISTRY of LABOUR and SOCIAL SECURITY Occupational Health and Safety Center RISK ASSESSMENT
Content Concepts of Hazard and Risk in the legislation of EU Risk Assessment What is a risk assessment? How do you do a risk assessment? How are the hazards identified? How do you rank or prioritize the risks? How do you know if the hazard is serious ?
Hazard and Risk Concepts in European Legislation According to Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work ; General responsibilities of the employer; In the article6-2(a,b,c), 6-3(a) and 9 : Prevent risks and risk assessment has been mandatory to employers 2002-2006 Strategy of European Union; Creating risk prevention culture in the workplace, Bringing a global approach to health and safety understanding, Ensuring equality in the free market conditions.
The Properties of New OSH Aproach ? Risk Assessment Participating of workers Providing expert contribution Informing of workers Training of workers Protection & Prevention Approach
Risk Assessment The main aim of the risk assessment isto protect workers’ health and safety. And it is also helps to minimize the possibility of the workers or the environment being harmed due to work-related activities.
Risk Assessment • What is a risk assessment? • Risk assessment is the process of: • Identifying hazards, • Analysing / evaluating the associated risk • Determining appropriate ways to eliminate or control the hazard
Risk Assessment • Risk assessment helps to…. • Determine if existing control measures are adequate or if more should be done • Prevent injuries or illnesses when done at the design or planning stage • Prioritize hazards and control measures
Risk Assessment Hazard – the potential for something to cause harm– an intrinsic property… Risk – the likelihood of that hazard to actually cause harm…
Risk Assessment • How do you do a risk assessment? • Assessments should be done by a competent team of individuals who have a good working knowledge of the workplace. • Involved / include staff, supervisors & workers who work with the process under review as they are the most • familiar with the operation.
Risk Assessment • How do you do a risk assessment?… • Include both people familiar with the work area, as well as people who are not – in this way you have both the "experienced" and "fresh" eye to conduct the inspection.
Risk Assessment • How do you do a risk assessment? … To do an assessment: • Identify hazards, • Evaluate the likelihood of an injury or illness occurring, and its severity, • Consider normal operational situations as well as non-standard events such as shutdowns, power cuts, emergencies, etc.,
Risk Assessment • How do you do a risk assessment? … To do an assessment: • Review all available health and safety information about the hazard such as MSDS’s, manufacturers literature, information from reputable organizations, results of testing, etc., • Identify actions necessary to eliminate or control the risk
Risk Assessment • How do you do a risk assessment? … To do an assessment: • Monitor and re-evaluate to confirm the risk is controlled, • Keep any documentation or records that may be necessary (eg detailing the process used to assess the risk, outlining any evaluations, or detailing how conclusions were made).
Risk Assessment • How do you do a risk assessment? … When doing an assessment, take into account: • The methods and procedures used in the processing, use, handling or storage of the substance, etc.. • The actual and the potential exposure of workers
Risk Assessment • How do you do a risk assessment? … When doing an assessment take into account: • The measures and procedures needed to control such exposure by means of engineering controls, work practices, hygiene practices & facilities.
Risk Assessment • How are the hazards identified? • To be sure that all hazards are found: • Look at all aspects of the work, includeNon • routine activities such as repair,maintenance or cleaning, • Look at accident / incident / near-miss records, • Include people who work "off site" either at home, on other job sites, drivers, teleworkerswith clients, etc.,
Risk Assessment • How are the hazards identified? • To be sure that all hazards are found… • Look at the way the work is organised • or “carried out" (include experience and • age of people doing the work, systems • being used, etc),
Risk Assessment • How are the hazards identified? • To be sure that all hazards are found: • Look at foreseeable unusual conditions • (eg possible impact on hazard control • procedures that may be unavailable in • an emergency situation, power cut, etc.), • Examine risks to subcontractors, visitors or the public
Risk Assessment • How are the hazards identified? • To be sure that all hazards are found: • Include groups that may have a different level of risk such as young or • unexperienced workers, persons with • disabilities, or new or expectant mothers.
Risk Assessment • How do you rank or prioritize the risks? • Ranking or prioritizing hazards is one way to help determine which hazard is the most serious and thus which hazard to control first. • Priority is usually established by taking into account the employee exposure and the potential for accident, injury or illness.
Risk Assessment • How do you rank or prioritize the risks? • Assigning a priority to the hazards, • creates a ranking or an action list. • The following factors play an important role: • percentage of workforce exposed, • frequency of exposure, • degree of harm likely to result from the exposure • probability of occurrence.
Risk Assessment What options exist to rank or prioritize risks? One option is to use a table similar to the following as established by the British Standards Organization:
Risk Assessment Definitions for Likelihood of Harm Very Likely - Typically experienced at least once every six months by an individual. Likely - Typically experienced once every 5 years by an individual. Unlikely - Typically experienced once during the working lifetime of an individual. Very unlikely - Less than 1% chance of being experienced by an individual during working lifetime.
Definitions for Severity of Harm Slight Harmful : accidents and illnesses not causing prolonged distress (eg. Small nicks, eye irritations, headaches, etc.) Moderate harmful : accidents and ilnesses causing moderate, but prolonged or periodically recurring distress (eg. dermal allergy, wounds, simple fractures, etc.) Extremely harmful : accidents and illnesses causing grave and permanent distress and /or death (eg. Amputations, cancer, second- or third degree burns on a very large body surface, etc. )
Definitions for Severity of Consequences Very low - These risks are considered acceptable.No further action is necessary other than to ensure that the controls are maintained. Low - No additional controls are required unless they can be implemented at very low cost (in terms of time, money, and effort).Actions to further reduce these risks are assigned low priority. Arrangements should be made to ensure that the controls are maintained. Medium - Consideration should be as to whether the risks can be lowered, where applicable, to a tolerable level and preferably to an acceptable level, but the costs of additional risk reduction measures should be taken into account. High - Substantial efforts should be made to reduce the risk. Risk reduction measures should beimplemented urgently within a defined time period. Very high - These risk are unacceptable. Substantial improvements in risk control measures are necessary so that the risk is reduced to a tolerable or acceptable level.If it is not possible to reduce the risk, the work should remain prohibited.
In general; • Very high risk is unacceptable; • Very low, low, medium and high risk is acceptable If legal requirements are not complied with, Risk is not acceptable !
Risk Assessment • How do you know if the hazard is serious (poses a risk)? • To research the hazard & determine its risklevel look at: • Product information / manufacturer documentation • Past experience (workers, etc) • Legislated requirements and/or applicable standards
Risk Assessment • How do you know if the hazard is serious (poses a risk)? • To research the hazard & determine its risk level look at: • Industry codes of practice / best practices • Material safety data sheets (MSDSs), • Information from reputable organizations • Results of testing (atmospheric, air sampling of workplace, biological, etc)
Risk Assessment • How do you know if the hazard is serious (poses a risk)? • To research the hazard & determine its risk level look at: • The expertise of a occupational health and safety professional • Information about previous injuries, • illnesses "near misses", accident reports, etc.
Risk Assessment • Include factors that contribute to the level of risk such as the: • Work environment (layout, condition...) • Capability, skill, experience of workers • who do the work • Systems of work being used.
Risk Assessment • Triggers for a review can also include: • The start of a new project • Change in the work process or flow • Change or addition to tools, equipment, • machinery (including locations or the way they are used) • New employees • Moving to a new building or work area, • Introduction of new chemicals/substances • When new information becomesavailable about a • current product.
Risk Assessment RA should be: Suitable A RA should take into account the severity of hazards well known in the type of activity / business. It can only refer to concrete findings (or anticipated risks) on site and at a certain point of time.
Risk Assessment RA should be: Sufficient A RA should derive prioritised measures to improve the occupational health and safety situation according to the well known “hierarchy of prevention” and according to established legal principles…
Risk Assessment RA should be: Systematic It should follow a defined and logical methodology. It should systematically lead to evidence based conclusions.
Principle of Crocodile • Identify the risk
Principle of Crocodile • Evaluate the risk
Principle of Crocodile • Eliminate the risk
Principle of Crocodile • Substitute the risk
Principle of Crocodile • Isolate the risk
Principle of Crocodile • Use Personal Protective Equipment
Principle of Crocodile • Or else……….Run away !
Thank You For Your Attention ! Suna AHİOĞLU Occupational Health and Safety Center E-mail: email@example.com