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  1. Class lectures available http://geology.uprm.edu/cavosie.html

  2. World Lithospheric Plates Source: After W. Hamilton, U.S. Geological Survey.

  3. North American Plate Caribbean Plate Source: http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/caribbean/background.htmli

  4. Source: http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/caribbean/background.html

  5. Source: http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/caribbean/background.html

  6. Hot Spot Volcanism Tectonic plates ‘drift’ over a ‘mantle plume’

  7. Hot spot volcanism: tracking moving plates

  8. Hot spot volcanism: tracking moving plates Midway Island (Pacific Plate) ~ 25 Million years old, 2700 km from Hawaii 2700 km/25 Ma At what rate is the Pacific plate moving?

  9. Plate Tectonics and the Rock Cycle • What drives plate tectonics? • Rock Formation at Plate Boundaries

  10. Mantle Convection Different rocks form in different environments

  11. Source: http://www.gly.fsu.edu/~salters/GLY1000/Chapter4/Chapter4_index.html

  12. Overview • Earthquakes–Basic Theory • Seismic Waves and Earthquake Severity • Earthquake–Related Hazards and Their Reduction • Earthquake Prediction and Forecasting • Earthquake Control? • Awareness, Public Response • Further Thoughts on Modern and Future U.S. Earthquakes

  13. Source: http://www.gly.fsu.edu/~salters/GLY1000/Chapter4/Chapter4_index.html

  14. SeismicWavesandEarthquakeSeverity • Locations faults occur • Types of Faults • Seismic Waves • Locating the Epicenter • Magnitude and Intensity

  15. Source: http://www.gly.fsu.edu/~salters/GLY1000/Chapter4/Chapter4_index.html

  16. Earthquake–Related Hazards and Their Reduction • Ground Motion (shaking) • Influenced by bedrock vs. sediments • Ground Failure (landslides, liquefaction) • Tsunamis and Coastal Effects • Fire

  17. Ground Shaking — Loma Prieta Earthquake Source: R.A. Page et. al., Goals, Opportunities, and Priorities for the USGS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1079, p. 7.

  18. Hollow Clay Brick Walls in Iran Source:Photograph by M. Mehrain, Dames and Moore, courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey.

  19. Timber-Frame Buildings in Turkey Source:Photograph by Roger Bilham, courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey.

  20. Landslide from Seattle Earthquake, 1965 Source:Photograph courtesy University of California at Berkeley/NOAA.

  21. Effects of Soil Liquefaction, Japanese Quakes (Nigata), 1964 Source:Photograph courtesy of National Geophysical Data Center.

  22. Sand Boils after Loma Prieta Earthquake Source:Photograph by J. Tinsley, from U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 89-687.

  23. Collapse of I-880 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake Source:Photograph by D. Keefer, from U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 89-687.

  24. Marina District Damage from Loma Prieta Quake Source:Photograph by M. Bennette, from U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 89-687

  25. Tsunami Damage in Kodiak, Alaska Source:Photograph courtesy of National Geophysical Data Center.

  26. Tsunami Travel Times to Hawaii Source: After U.S. Geological Survey.

  27. Earthquake Prediction and Forecasting • Seismic Gaps • Earthquake Precursors and Prediction • Current Status of Earthquake Prediction • The Earthquake Cycle and Forecasting

  28. California Earthquake Probabilities Map Source: After U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1079, fig, 15, p. 29.