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Please go watch these 2 lectures after class. 2008 HHMI lecture by Eric Kandel and Tom Jessell This week http://media.hhmi.org/hl/08Lect1.html More history about early works on mapping the brain function Next week http://media.hhmi.org/hl/08Lect4.html. Where is the seat of the soul?.

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please go watch these 2 lectures after class
Please go watch these 2 lectures after class

2008 HHMI lecture by Eric Kandel and Tom Jessell

This week

http://media.hhmi.org/hl/08Lect1.html

More history about early works on mapping the brain function

Next week

http://media.hhmi.org/hl/08Lect4.html

where is the seat of the soul
Where is the seat of the soul?
  • Socrates (469-399 BC)
    • “… brain may be the originating power of the perceptions of hearing and sight and smell, and memory and opinion may come from them…”
  • Aristotle (384-322 BC)
    • cardiocentric view of mental function
    • function of the brain is to cool the heart
origins of the study of learning and memory
Origins of the study of learning and memory

The study of learning is closely related to the beginning of experimental psychology (~1900)

Hermann Ebbinghaus

The 1st psychologist study memory scientifically.

Used introspection to study forgetting in himself list of 12-16 consonant-vowel-consonant nonsense syllabus (Ex:KEG, MIW).

On Memory:  An Investigation in Experimental Psychology in 1885. 

several modern disciplines study of learning and memory
Several modern disciplines study of learning and memory
  • Psychology
    • classification of learning and memory
  • Physiology/Anatomy
    • Which part of brain is important for learning and memory
  • Molecular Biology
    • Molecular mechanism of learning and memory
patient hm
Patient HM

Most famous case reported by Scoville & Milner (1957)

HM: bilateral medial temporal lobe lesion for status epilepticus in 1953

amnesia severe memory loss
Amnesia: severe memory loss

Amnesia: Partial or total loss of memory, usually resulting from shock, psychological disturbance, brain injury, or illness.

1. Retrograde amnesia: cannot recall events that occurred prior to the brain trauma.

2. Anterograde amnesia: cannot recall events that occurs after the brain trauma.

slide11

H.M. perform well in priming

  • Subjects were presented with common words
  • asked to recall the words (free recall)
  • given the first three letters of a word (priming)
h m s specific memory deficit
H.M.‘s specific memory deficit
  • IQ and personality unchanged
  • Normal learning and short-term memory
  • Normal long-term memory for facts before operation
  • Loss of information acquired just before the operation
  • Unable to transfer new short-term memory into new long-term memory (explicit memory)
  • Normal procedural (motor) memory
what we learn from h m s case
What we learn from H.M.’s case
  • We have two types of memory: Short term and long term.
  • The hippocampus is not involved in the formation of short term memory and retrieval of long-term memories.
  • The hippocampus is not involved in 'procedural memories‘.
  • The hippocampus is not be involved in personality, IQ and other cognitive functions.
  • The hippocampus is involved in transferring short term explicitmemory to long term memory.
slide16

pyramidal cell layer

Hippocampus anatomy

sub

CA=CornuAmmonis

DG=dentate gyrus

Sub=subiculum

EC= Entorhinal Cortex

granular cell layer

hilus

slide19

London Taxi Drivers : Structural MRI & Neuropsychological Analysis

Bus drivers were not found such correlation

memory
Memory
  • Types of memory:
    • short-term (working)memory
      • temporary
      • limited capacity
      • needs rehearsal
    • long-term memory
      • 'permanent'
      • greater capacity
      • no continual rehearsal needed
short term memory
Short-term memory
  • Works like RAM memory in computers; provides a working space.
  • A limited capacity for 7±2 independent information.
  • Last only few seconds to minutes
  • Vulnerable to interruption or interference
  • The information held in short-term memory may be:
    • recently processed sensory input
    • items recently retrieved from long-term memory
ways to move information to long term memory
Ways to move information to long term memory

1. Senses and emotions

2. Repetition and Rehearsal

3. Organization Principles

senses and emotions
Senses and emotions

Where were you on the following day?

0-9-3-5-1-5-7-3-7-6

September 01, 2004

September 11, 2001

September 21, 1999

repetition and rehearsal
Repetition and Rehearsal

Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition.

Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ

organization principles
Organization Principles

Acronyms are another way of chunking information to remember it.

abuse

Ab = away, from

HOMES = Huron, Ontario, Michigan,Erie, Superior

long term memory
Long-term memory
  • Long-term memory store containing the accumulated knowledge base
  • Characteristics
    • Duration: Hours to years
    • Capacity: Huge - possibly limitless

Hippocampal system would mediate the initial steps of long-term storage. It would then slowly transfer information into the neocortical storage system.

slide29

Memory can be classified as implicate or explicit on the basis of how information is stored and recalled

explicit versus implicit memory
Explicit versus Implicit Memory

Explicit(or declarative) memory – recalled by a deliberate, conscious effort.

- semanticmemory (facts)

- episodicmemory (events)

Implicit memory( nondeclarative) – a memory that is recalled unconsciously. Stored in perceptual, motor and emotional circuits.

- procedural memory (swimming, biking)

- associative learning (conditioning)

- nonassociative learning

- priming

slide31

Semantic vs. episodic memory

Episodic Memory refers to memories for particular events that have been experienced.

Semantic Memory refers to knowledge such as vocabularies, concepts, numbers or facts.

slide32

Selective lesions in the posterior parietal cortex produce selective defects in semantic knowledge

damage to the posterior parietal cortex

damage to the occipital lobes

associative agnosia

apperceptiveagnosia

explicit knowledge involves four distinct processes
Explicit knowledge involves four distinct processes

Encoding: process of newly learned information.

Consolidation: make new information more stable for long-term storage. Synthesis of new proteins is required.

Storage: the mechanism and sites to retain memory over time.

Retrieval: recall and use of the stored information.

The more association, the stronger memory

Retrieval of information is most effective when it occurs in the same cues.

implicit memory
Implicit memory

Implicit memory( nondeclarative) – a memory that is recalled unconsciously. Stored in perceptual, motor and emotional circuits.

- procedural memory (swimming, biking)

- associative learning (conditioning)

- nonassociative learning

- priming

Builds up slowly, through repetition over many trials, and is expressed primarily in performance, not in words.

Does not depend on conscious processes.

learning of implicit memory
Learning of implicit memory
  • Non-associative learning:learns about the properties of a single stimulus
    • Habituation
    • Sensitization
  • Associative learning: learns about the relationship between two stimuli or between a stimulus and a behavior
    • Classical conditioning (Pavlovian conditioning)
    • Operant conditioning (Instrumental conditioning)
slide37
NonassociativeLearning

Habituation : decrease in response to a repeated stimulus not accompanied by changes in other stimuli

Sensitisation: an increase in response to a moderate stimuli as a result of a previous exposure to a strong stimulus

如入鮑魚之肆,久而不聞其臭

一朝被蛇咬,十年怕草繩

slide38

Operant conditioning

Classical conditioning

Associative Learning

learning a relationship between a behavior and the consequences

learning a relationship between two stimuli

slide39

Classical conditioning

(US)

  • US → UR
  • CS+ US → UR
  • CS → CR(salivation)

(CS)

(UR)

(CR)

classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning
  • Unconditionedstimulus(US): unrelated to the response that eventually will be learned.
  • Conditioned stimulus (CS): neutral response
  • During conditioning, the CS and US are paired over many trials
  • Test of learning: Does the CS alone produce a response?

CS-US paired

CR

TRIALS

UR

slide41

Pavlov’s view of the physiology of learning

Pavlov believed that conditioning strengthened connections between the CS center and US center in the brain.

contest vs cued fear conditioning
Contest vs. cued fear conditioning
  • CS= something neutral (tone, light)
  • US= aversive stimulus (loud noise, shock )
slide44

Extinction and spontaneous recovery

Re-train

Training

Extinction

1 Tone-Shock Pairings

10 Tone-Shock Pairings

10 Tone only

Training

Extinction

Re-train

slide45

Importance of hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning test

Remote training

Freezing

10 Tone-Shock Pairings

slide46

Importance of hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning test

50 days later

Remote

Training

Recent

Training

10 light-Shock Pairings

slide47

Importance of hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning test

50 days later

With in 24 hr

Remote

Training

Recent

Training

Lesion

Electrolytic Dorsal

Hippocampus Lesion

slide48

Importance of hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning test

50 days later

next day

10 day

recovery

C

100

75

50

25

0

Remote

Recent

(first six min)

Remote

Training

Recent

Training

Sham or

Hippocampus

Lesion

SHAM

Remote

Recent

% freezing

Next day

DH

slide49

Operant Behavior

  • Associative learning process between a stimulus and a response.
  • The term operant comes from the verb to operate and refers to behavior that operates on the environment to produce a consequence.
  • Not automatic
  • Operant conditioning as a process, has evolved over species history and is based on genetic endowment.
operant learning
Operant learning
  • The mouse is “operating” on its environment by pressing the lever in the box and receiving a food reward.
  • Voluntary and goal directed
  • Controlled by its consequences
  • Strengthened if rewarded or punished
hebbian learning
Hebbian learning
  • Donald Hebb (1949) - When an axon of cell A is near enough to excite a cell B and repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one or both cells such that A's efficiency, as one of the cells firing B, is increased.