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BBI3416 Functional Grammar. Functional Grammar takes on a Hallidayan approach in learning the operations of grammar. It examines the relationships between grammatical forms and meaning.

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bbi3416 functional grammar
BBI3416 Functional Grammar
  • Functional Grammar takes on a Hallidayan approach in learning the operations of grammar.
  • It examines the relationships between grammatical forms and meaning.
  • In the process of using the language, sentence structure is seen to operate at three levels of meaning: the experiential, the interpersonal and the textual.
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The analysis would give rise to a better understanding of the constituents of a sentence and ultimately how they are strung together to convey the desired meaning.
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At the end of the course, students should improve on their grasp of grammatical accuracy which is essential for clear and effective expression in context.
synopsis
SYNOPSIS
  • This course involves understanding the principles of the functional grammar approach in the analysis of language in use; explaining linguistic choice in context;
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applying the system to the description of text, both spoken and written; conceptualising word classes, the composition of the clause, and information structure; and arriving at and interpreting meaning in the context of expression.
course objectives
Course Objectives
  • By the end of the course, students are able to:
  • 1. understand Halliday’s “system of meanings” for the analysis of language in use,
  • 2. use grammatical tools to account for coherence in authentic texts, and relate the approach to trends and developments in the study of communicativeevents.
  • 3. relate the approach to trends and developments in the study of communicative events.
course schedule
Course Schedule

WEEK/ TOPIC

  • 1. Basic Concepts related to Functional

Grammar

  • 2Examining the noun group
  • 3Examining the noun group
  • 4Doing and Happening
  • 5The transitivity of mental and verbal

processes

  • 6The transitivity of relational and existential

processes

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7. Representing time
  • 8 Speech Acts and Mood
  • 9 Expressing Judgements and Attitudes
  • 10 Organising Messages
  • 11 Expressing Multiple Messages
  • 12- 14 Revision
texts
TEXTS

Lock, G. Functional English Grammar . Cambridge: Cambridge: University Press.

Thompson,G (2004) Functional Grammar

Massachusetts: Thompson and Heinle

Elbaum, S. and Denman, B. (2006) Grammar in Context. Massachusetts: Thompson and Heinle

  • Contact: Mr Tan Pustaka Princip
  • Flat Ikan, Sri Serdang
course evaluation
COURSE EVALUATION
  • 1. Tests 1 and Mid Sem 30 %
  • 2. Assignments 35 %
  • 3. Final Examination 35 %
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Format of the Quiz 1, Mid semester test and Final examination
  • Quiz 1 will have objective questions (first 3 topics)  
  • The mid semester test and final exam will have objective questions and short subjective answers.
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Topics covered for examination
  • The Mid-semester Examination: The first four topics according to the learning schedule given.
  • The Final Examination : Topics 5 -All the topics
introduction to functional grammar
Introduction to Functional Grammar
  • Assumptions
  • You are able to recognise the basics of grammar, e.g the parts of speech, the sequence of arrangement of constituents of a sentence.
  • You are able to recognise basic sentence patterns
basic sentence patterns
Basic Sentence Patterns
  • Subject Verb
  • Subject Verb Object
  • Subject Verb Complement
  • Subject Verb Direct Object Indirect Object
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In Functional Grammar, the essential

word groups are:

  • 1. Noun Group
  • 2. Adjective Group
  • 3. Adverb Group
  • 4. Verb Group
  • 5. Prepositional Phrase
basic concepts in functional analysis
BASIC CONCEPTS IN FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS

·Rank

  • Rank refers to the different levels of organisation in the description of grammar.
  • We could talk about our analysis at word level or we could talk about it at sentence level.
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·Units
  • Units are the word groups that can be strung together to give meaning.

·Clauses

  • A clausal structure contains a verb form. It may be a complete sentence or it may be a group of words that serve as a modifier.
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Example:
  •  He goes to the movie. ( one clause)
  • (Clause 1) (Clause 2)
  • Ali bought a pen and Hassan bought a book. ( two clauses )
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A clause may be a finite clause or a nonfinite clause
  • A finite clause contains a finite verb such as
  • v     He goes to the antique shop in Malacca.
  • v     She went to Port Dickson with her friends.
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A nonfinite clause may contain a verb form which is not affected by tense agreement or number as in: ( the underlined words)
  • Having transport problems , Kong Beng decided to stay in the hostel at Sekolah Sri Kota.
noun groups
NOUN GROUPS
  • A Noun or the noun group is another grammatical feature that needs explication as it is a group that occupies an essential slot in most of our utterances.
  • He goes to the gym.
structure of a noun group
Structure of a Noun Group
  • In understanding how nouns function, we could examine the constituents in the group. The group may be just one word or several words. The focus in the noun group is the head and a premodifier may precede while a postmodifier may follow the head.
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Example
  • premodifier head postmodifier
  • The headmaster of Sekolah Sri

Gombak

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Count Nouns
  • Many, few, a few,
  • Mass Nouns
  • much, a little, little
  • Mass noun and count noun
  • several, fewer, fewest
  • some, a lot of , less, least
describers
Describers
  • A describer reveals the quality of the noun or an attitude towards the noun used.
  • Examples
  • A slender girl
  • An ugly duckling
verb groups
VERB GROUPS
  • A verb group is an expanded verb. An example is the following sentence:
  • She should have written the letter.
  • Structure of a Verb Group  

The head of the verb group is written. It represents the experiential meaning of the process. Such verbs are known as lexical verbs. The elements that precede the head are auxiliary verbs or auxiliaries. They are sometimes regarded as premodifiers.

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In a verb group, four types of auxiliaries can precede a head verb. The head verb is the lexical verb.
  • He would have been seen by the guide.
  • He is going to school.
  • She has been promoted
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modal auxiliaries will, would, may
  • perfect auxiliaries have, has, had
  • continuous/ progressive auxiliaries
  • is, am, are
  • passive auxiliaries is, am, are
slide29
Action Processes
  • In functional grammar, the term for the configurations of participants associated with different processes is known as transitivity (Lock, 1996: 73).
action processes
Action Processes
  • Circumstance

Without apprehension and doubt,

  • Participant(Actor)the hobbit
  • Action stole
  • Participant (Goal) the vegetables.
phrasal verbs
Phrasal Verbs
  • Phrasal verbs are verbs that are followed by a preposition, technically called a particle.
  • Actor My mother
  • Process/Phrasal verb switched off
  • Goal the fan.
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Actor Mary
  • Process swam
  • Circumstantial Adjunct in the sea.
phase
PHASE
  • A phase is a structure with two verb groups where the second is dependent on the first. The first verb is often finite (but may be nonfinite) and the second verb is always nonfinite.
  • In such verb groups, the first verb adds some information about the action represented by the second verb, but does not in itself represent a complete process (Lock, 1996: 98).
slide34
Actor The party of nine

Process reached

Range the centre of the mine.

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Middle voice

Affected Ice

Process melts

Circumstantial Adjunct at room temperature.

Active voice

  • Causer Heat
  • Process melts
  • Affected ice.
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The hobbits (Actor)
  • will continue to fight (phase)

the goblins ( Goal).

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Passive voice
  • Affected Ice
  • Process is melted
  • Causer (by heat).
extended phase structure
Extended Phase Structure

Actor Endurance

Process kept

Goal the soldiers

Process going

Circumstantial Adjunct during the war.