Western Farmers Main Idea A wave of farmers moved to the Plains in the 1800s and faced many economic problems. Why It Matters Now Farmers are facing similar economic problems today.
CA Standards • 8.12.1Trace patterns of agricultural and industrial development as they relate to climate, use of natural resources, markets, and trade and locate such development on a map. • 8.12.3 Students explain how states and the federal government encouraged business expansion through tariffs, banking, land grants, and subsidies. • 8.12.8 Identify the characteristics and impact of Grangerism and Populism.
Daily Guided Questions • What were the three problems associated with the Homestead Act? • What were some of the hardships of settlers in the West?
Quick Write • Response to this quick write question. • “Imagine that you are a recent immigrant from Europe. You have been promised 160 acres of free land in the Oklahoma Territory. You are not promised to succeed. Do you move west or stay in the big cities, working for a dollar a day, 12-14 hours a day?” • You have 5 minutes to respond in at least 60 words.
Homestead Act, 1862 • Half a million farmers settle the Great Plains by 1900. • Given 160 acre plot to anyone who resided on the land for five years. • Homesteader= settlers who received free land from the government. -Little money to move west. -Large companies illegally gained land. -160 acres was not enough land to live off. -1/3 of farmers actually lasted the five years.
Railroads and Farming • RR’s want more farms. -More farms meant more western shipping. • Gave over 180 million acres of land. -Easterners and European immigrants.
Soddies/ Sodbusters • Settlers of the Great Plains. -Hard working. • Water is scarce and few crops grew. • Sod=surface of earth in which roots of grasses tangled with soil. -Settlers used sod to create homes.
New Farming Methods • Steel Plow -Lighter and stronger. • Drills-Plant seed. • Reapers-Harvest machine • Threshers-Beat hard covering of grain. • Windmills-Used to pump water. • Barbed Wire-Keep cattle from destroying crops.
Exodusters • 1000’s of A.A. moving west. -Farmers -Worked in towns. -Hired hands, etc. • Compared themselves to the Ancient Jews escaping Egypt, Exodus story.
Spanish Southwest • Mexicans that stayed since the Mex-Amer War. • Many more coming with the arrival of the railroads. -Help build RR’s. • Large Land owners known as ricos. -Claimed and fought to keep land under Spanish and Mexican law.
Oklahoma Land Rush • Last land left for settlers. • Boomers= people who came to claim land. • Sooners= People who sneaked onto the land to claim it. • All land claimed by 1893.
Farmers Organize • Grains from the Midwest feeds people in both the USA and Europe. -Grain prices fall. -Farms taken when debts can’t be paid. • Granges formed= groups of farmers who met for lectures, sewing bees, and other events. -Social and educational movements turned into economic protest. -Protested RR’s rates
Cont. • Farm Cooperatives= Groups of farmers who pooled money to make large purchases of tools, seeds, and other supplies at a discount. • Populist Party, political party that pushed for social reforms. -Public control of RR’s. -Warehouse rate control. -Income Tax, instead of property tax. -Eight-Hour workday. -Change the gold standard to silver, makes more money available. • Demo. William Jennings Bryan, populist favorite loses 1896 election.
Six C’s • ReadGrasshoppers Walking, Laura Ingalls Wilder, Textbook pg. 641.Complete a Six C’s of Primary Source Analysis Graphic Organizer
Study Guide Pg. 213 • Copy and complete the study guide on page 213. • Use your notes and textbook pg. 469-473.