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Some Future Directions for Sport Psychology Research. Lew Hardy Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance School of Sport, Health & Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, Wales, UK. Overview. Self-indulgent selection of domains

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Some Future Directions for Sport Psychology Research

Lew Hardy

Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance

School of Sport, Health & Exercise Sciences,

Bangor University, Wales, UK

overview
Overview
  • Self-indulgent selection of domains
  • Previous research what do we know what are the limitations?
  • Future research What would it be interesting to explore?
health warning
Health Warning
  • Contrary view of the world - “Good, the new bad ...”
  • Simple additive (main effect) models of the world are just wrong
  • The world is full of complex interactions
stress and performance
Stress and Performance
  • Cue utilisation – narrowing and selectivity
  • Processing efficiency theory, attention control theory
  • Regression effects - conscious processing, degrees of freedom
  • Ironic effects – doing the very thing you least want to do
  • Motivational effects – when and in what direction?
stress and performance ii the hidden gremlins
Stress and Performance II:The Hidden Gremlins
  • Multiple stressors, mechanisms & task demands:
  • Ego, physical harm, interpersonal, fatigue, financial, daily hassles
  • Perceptual changes, cognitive deficits, regression effects, ironic effects, motivational effects, emotion
  • Batting against spin, power lifting, ultra marathons, sailing dinghies
  • What is causal and what correlational?
mental toughness
Mental Toughness
  • Disposition to be robust and resilient to a wide range of stressors
  • Limitations of current research – poor conceptualisation, lack of theory, self-report questionnaires, interviews
  • Conceptualisation – mental toughness vs mental perfection
  • Informant or objective measures
  • Reinforcement sensitivity theory
  • Performance vs health?
other aspects of personality in sport
Other Aspects of Personality in Sport
  • Shotgun approach of early research
  • Limited research in sport – goal orientations, competitive anxiety
  • Performers are people first: Big five factors – conscientiousness, openness, extraversion & neuroticism overdone? Narcissism – training vs the big occasionPsychopathy– single point of focus Interactions
a darker side to motivation
A Darker Side to Motivation
  • Achievement goal theory
  • Self-determination theory
  • Is high level performance always underpinned by a mastery focus and self-determined regulation?
  • Obsessive motivation – extremely high training volume, emotional dependence on success, training when injured, serial medallists, loss of identity on retirement?
a darker side to development
A Darker Side to Development
  • Nurturing environments – high self-esteem, confidence, highly skilled, mastery focused
  • Learning from failure – experimenting and making mistakes, learning what consequences are and how to deal with threat ... Punishment
  • Insecure attachments and striving
  • Experiencing loss, pain, defeat, humiliation

Williamson & Gogarty (2009)

training
Training
  • Performers spend 95% of time in training
  • Very little research
  • To what extent is competitive performance predicted by training behaviour?
  • What are the most important training behaviours for different sports?
  • What are the determinants of training behaviour?
  • How can we influence training behaviour?
group dynamics
Group Dynamics
  • Leadership – decision making and “recognition” styles
  • Transformational leadership and other theories – mechanisms vs “boxology”
  • Coaching vs instructing
  • Effective teamwork – moving beyond group cohesion and role variables ...
  • How exactly do teams interact effectively?
some methodological opportunities
Some Methodological Opportunities
  • Cognitive neuroscience
  • Psychophysiology
  • Genetics
  • Statistical methods to identify patterns in very complex datasets
  • High quality participant observation studies
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Thank you

Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance

School of Sport, Health & Exercise Sciences,

Bangor University, Wales, UK