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Brazil - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Brazil. Key Themes. Brasilidade Immigration & “Whitening” Coffee plantation economy Role of President Vargas Race & Slavery. Images of Brazil. 1549 = Paradise on Earth 16 th century = Site of cannibalism 17 th century = Awareness of racial inequality

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key themes
Key Themes
  • Brasilidade
  • Immigration & “Whitening”
  • Coffee plantation economy
  • Role of President Vargas
  • Race & Slavery
images of brazil
Images of Brazil
  • 1549 = Paradise on Earth
  • 16th century = Site of cannibalism
  • 17th century = Awareness of racial inequality
  • 19th century = Scientific wonderland
  • 20th Century = World connections
  • 1970s = “Awakening Giant” & “Brazilian Miracle”
  • 1980s = 2 Brazils in 1 nation
brazil s independence
Brazil’s Independence
  • 1808 = Queen Maria & Prince João escape Napoleon’s invasion
  • 1820 = Military demand abdication of King João
  • 1822 – 1889 = Monarchy under Emperor Pedro I & Emperor Pedro II

Dom Pedro II

why a republic in 1889
Why a republic in 1889?
  • Abolition of slavery (1888)
  • Alienation of the plantocracy
the old republic era of the oligarchies 1889 1930
The Old Republic/Era of the Oligarchies, 1889 – 1930
  • Favoritism
  • Corruption
  • 1891 = New Federal Constitution
  • Coup d’etat of Vargas & end of Old Republic (1930)
the get lio vargas revolution
The Getùlio Vargas Revolution
  • First era = 1930 – 1945
  • 1937 = Estado Novo dictatorship began
  • Second era = 1951 – 1954
  • Built a strong national government
  • “Father of the Poor”
the populist era 1945 1964
The Populist Era, 1945 – 1964
  • Vargas forced out (1945)
  • Vargas elected president (1951 – 1954)
  • Vargas’ suicide (1954)
  • Military coup deposes President Goulart (1964)
plantation economy race
Plantation Economy & Race
  • Brazilwood, sugar, coffee
  • Dependent upon imported goods
  • Rigid racial & social hierarchy
gold cycle 1690 1750
“Gold Cycle,” 1690 – 1750
  • Late 17th century – early 18th century = Gold mining
  • Minas Gerais
  • Demographic shift
king coffee 1840s 1928
King Coffee, 1840s – 1928
  • 1920s = “Coffee paid for everything”
  • Destruction of rainforest
  • Social wealth model from sugar
  • 1860s – 1870s = Immigrant labor
  • 1928 = Coffee “bust”
afro brazilian slavery
Afro-Brazilian Slavery
  • 1492 – 1850 = Almost 10 million slaves sent to Brazil
  • Gradual Abolition
  • Quieroz Law of 1850
  • 1871 = Law of Free Womb
  • 1880s = Abolitionist movement
  • 1886 = Whipping of slaves outlawed
  • 1888 = Full abolition
slave population
Slave Population
  • 1873 = 1,566,416
  • 1883 = 1,346,648
  • 1885 = 1,133, 228
  • 1887 = 723, 419
immigration
Immigration
  • 1827 – 1930 = 3.8 million immigrants from Europe & Japan arrive in Brazil
  • 1897 – 1930 = 35% of immigrants were Italian, 29% were Portuguese
  • 1884 – 1970 = 248,400 Japanese move to Brazil
  • Brasilidade & “Whitening”
experiments
Experiments
  • 1820s = Recruitment of German-speaking Austrians to colonize as middle-class farmers
  • 1860s = Recruitment of Chinese immigrants
1940 brasilidade
1940 & Brasilidade
  • 1940 = Claims of “white nation” status
  • 1940 = 63.5% white, 14.6 % Black, .6% “yellow,” 21.2% “Pardo”
  • Why?
  • Vargas, samba, & soccer
  • Estado Novo attitude about race
movimento negro
Movimento Negro
  • Mid-1970s
  • Why the name?
  • Ebony magazine
popular religion
Popular Religion
  • Popular Catholicism
  • Umbanda = Fastest growing religion in 1950s & 1960s
  • Bantu speakers in Rio
  • Candomblè
pentacostalism
Pentacostalism
  • Rio de Janeiro = 61% of churches are Pentacostal
  • 1906 = Started in Los Angeles by William Seymour
  • 1970s & 1980s = Gains strength in Brazil
  • Speaking in tongues
  • Why the attraction?