modern era review n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Modern Era Review PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Modern Era Review

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 27
ross-ross

Modern Era Review - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

92 Views
Download Presentation
Modern Era Review
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Modern Era Review 1750-1914 AP World History - Klinect

  2. Major Themes • Revolutions and independence movements • Nationalism and the nation-state • Industrialization • Reform and Reaction • Imperialism and its impact • Emancipation • Cultural influences

  3. Revolutions & Independence Movements • American Revolution (1776-1781) • Seven Year’s War (1756-1763) • “no taxation w/out representation” • Declaration of Independence • “all men are created equal” • Reality = no legal and political equality • Conservative revolution • Popular sovereignty

  4. Revolutions & Independence Movements • French Revolution (1789-1815) • Radical revolution … wanted to replace “old order” with a completely “new order” • Three Estates … problems • National Assembly … Bastille … Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen • Max Robespierre … “Reign of Terror” • Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte … Napoleonic Era & the accomplishments • Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)

  5. Revolutions & Independence Movements • Haitian Revolution (1802-04) • French … sugar production • American & French Revolution impact along with Enlightenment ideas • L’Overture … slave revolt … only successful slave revolt in history • Many nations, including the USA, refused to recognize independent Haiti • Haitian Revolution will inspire other L.A. nations

  6. Revolutions & Independence Movements • Latin American Revolutions • Spanish & Portuguese minority (30,000) dominated the 3.5 million creoles, and 10 million less-privileged peoples. • Creoles began the revolutions • Did NOT seek social reform, only to remove peninsulares from power • Napoleon’s impact • Father Hidalgo (Mexico); Bolivar (northern South America); San Martin (southern S.A.); Dom Pedro (Brazil) • Gran Colombia

  7. Nationalism & the Nation-State • Unification of Italy • Roman Catholic Church had discouraged nationalism. Why? • Papal states = papal resistance • Garibaldi & Cavour – Victor Emmanuell • Italy united by 1870 w/ the help of political maneuvering … alliances … deals

  8. Nationalism & the Nation-State • Unification of Germany • Prussia became increasingly more powerful after the fall of Napoleon • Otto von Bismarck … “blood and iron” • United Germany through wars w/ Denmark, Austria, and France (Franco-Prussian War) • Germany quickly approached the UK and USA as top industrial powers • Led to Germany wanting to “flex their muscles” entering the 20th century … World War I??

  9. Nationalism & the Nation-State • Zionism • Nationalism’s view of minorities? • Jews had been the biggest “target” for many European nations … anti-semitism • Theodor Herzl (1897) • Balfour Declaration (1917 - just after this time period)

  10. Nationalism & the Nation-State • Latin America • 1830’s = LA was independent • Leaders wanted representative gov’t but felt the mass population was unprepared • Early constitutions created order and representation … property & literacy were pre-requisites to vote • Economic problems = rise of caudillos • Catholic Church remained strong • Instability led to foreign intervention (Monroe Doctrine)

  11. Industrialization • Modern industry => scientific activity and invention of the 17th century • James Watt – steam engine – change?

  12. Industrialization • Preconditions for industrialization • Technical knowledge and invention • Large population to serve as a workforce • Possession of natural resources to be turned into manufactured goods • Investment capital (money) to build factories • A stable and capitalist-minded government • Poorer nations have large population but lack investment capital • US and Germany surpassed Britain by 1900

  13. Industrialization • Technology • Higher-grade steel => transportation and weaponry • Engine-driven steel ships replaced wooden ships • Trains revolutionized transportation and were transplanted into Asian & African colonies

  14. Industrialization • Impact on gender, family, and social structures • Slavery declined & free-wage laborers declined • Family as an economic moved to production outside the home • Men’s status increased because industrial work and the wage were considered more important than domestic work • Middle-class women generally did not work outside the home • “cult of domesticity”

  15. Industrialization • Global effects of industrialization • Global division of labor emerged • Industrial societies needed raw materials: • Cotton (India & Egypt) • Rubber (Brazil & Congo) • Cash crops (Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and SE Asia) • These areas developed little to no industrialization themselves • Wealth was concentrated in the hands of a few • “Dependency Theory”

  16. Industrialization • Reactions to Industrialization: • Socialism • Anti-capitalist reform movements • Karl Marx • Overthrow of the moneyed class (bourgeoisie) • Establish a “workers state” • Unionism • Less radical • Sought better wages and working conditions • Britain led the way in reforms to better working conditions

  17. Reform and Reaction • Ottoman Empire • By the 18th century they had fallen behind the Europeans in strength and technology … were more vulnerable • Central gov’t less effective while provinces became more independent, often controlling their own armies • Muhammad Ali … seized power in Egypt after the fall of Napoleon and was only minimally subordinate to the Ottoman sultans • Ali’s son commissioned the French to build the Suez Canal that opened in 1869 • Transformed Egypt into a critical strategic location • Ottomans also lost trade b/c of Europen bypass directly to India & China • Atlantic Ocean now became the focal point away from the Ottomans • European goods flooded Ottoman market and they became dependent on foreign loans • Huge blow to the ego of the Ottomans

  18. Reform and Reaction • Ottomans (cont.) • Mahmud II; reformer; reorganized secondary education, built new roads, telegraph lines, and a postal service along the western models • Tanzimat Era (1839-1879) … used the French legal system as a guide … public trials and equality were instituted before Muslim laws and those of other religious groups … secular • Obviously these reforms were met with opposition from various religious groups and the bureaucracy • Many reformers were exiled (Young Turks) but they returned in 1908 and led a coup and overthrew the sultan. • Years of internal struggle led Europe to refer to them as “the sick man of Europe” … • The Ottomans eventually ally themselves with the Germans

  19. Reform and Reaction • Russia • Russia was autocratic, multiethnic, multilingual, and multicultural … very similar to the Ottomans • Czars supported boyars and Russian Orthodox Church • Peasants = majority of population, serfdom • Expanded vastly > led to Crimean War (1856-58) … defeat • Czar Alexander II > emancipated serfs in 1861; created zemstovs (local/district assemblies) but were still subordinate to czar; began construction of Trans-Siberian Railroad; industrialization • Was assassinated by radical revolutionaries (Lenin’s brother) “intelligentsia” … university students and intellectuals (1881) • Later czars reverted back to repression, not reform, to control the masses • Czar Nicholas II & the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) • Bloody Sunday & Revolution of 1905

  20. Reform and Reaction • China • China, like the Ottomans & Russians had to deal with their own issues of reform and reaction. • Qing (Manchu) saw massive population growth, new food crops from the Americas, and new monetary system based on silver • Opium War (1839) … unequal treaties … extraterritoriality • Taiping Rebellion (1850’s to 1860’s) … Hong Xiuquan … anti-Chinese society rebellion … deadliest rebellion in world history • Reform > Self-Strengthening Movement … “Chinese learning at the base, Western learning for use.” … shipyards, railroads, & weapon industries along with science academies • Hundred Days Reform … Emperor Guangzu … constitutional monarchy, guarantee civil right liberties, encourage foreign influence … led to Boxer Rebellion (1899-1900) • Sun Yat Sen … Pu Yi … end of the Qing Dynasty (1911) • Three Principles of Sun: Nationalism, Democracy, Socialism

  21. Reform and Reaction • Japan • Japan made the most radical reforms and changes in its response to the challenges of reform and reaction … emerged as a world power • Commodore Perry (1853) … told to leave … “revere the emperor and repel the barbarians.” • Younger samurai (reformers) wanted to undermine the bakufu … “men of spirit” overthrew the Shogun … wanted to industrialize after seeing the British defeat China easily in Opium Wars • Meiji Restoration (Revolution) of 1868 … rapid industrialization and modernization of Japan … modern infrastructure and military • Victories against China and Russia heading into the 20th century gave Japan aspirations of empire in Asia

  22. Imperialism and its Impact • Three motives: economic, political, and cultural • Economic: Colonies = sources of raw materials and markets for manufactured goods. • Political: colonies were strategic sites with harbors and supply stations for naval ships • Culturally: hoped to convert the Asian and African people to Christianity … “White Man’s Burden” • India • UK’s interest was purely a business venture … British East India Company … took advantage of Mughal weaknesses • Sepoys … Sepoy Revolt (1857) • Tea, coffee, and opium were cultivated • British built railroads, telegraphs, canals, harbors, and irrigation systems … English-style schools were set up for elite Indians • Indian National Congress founded in 1885 • Muslim League • Promised independence if they fought in World War I

  23. Imperialism and its Impact • Africa • Europe had little presence in Africa outside coastal trading posts for most of modern world history ... • “Scramble for Africa” (1875-1900) … Europe dominates entire continent • King Leopold II of Belgium – Congo Free State … holocaust? • British in Egypt (1882) … seized Suez Canal • Berlin Conference • Japan • After accepting western help seized Korea (1894) and Manchuria (1904) after military victories • Japan was now on the world stage

  24. Imperialism and its Impact • Legacy of Imperialism • Manufacturers became suppliers of raw materials and consumers of imported goods • Migration increased … USA, Canada, Argentina, Australia, South Africa in search for cheap land and better economic opportunities • Indentured servants (Asia & Africa) went to tropical lands for plantation labor • Scientific racism (Social Darwinism)

  25. Emancipation • Slavery • Mid-19th century liberals pushed for abolition … Enlightenment influence • Slavery, from an economic sense, became less profitable • Prices of sugar, cotton, and tobacco fell • Emancipation: • Britain (1833) • France (1848) • United States (1865) • Brazil (1888) • Freedom ≠ equality

  26. Emancipation • Serfdom • Key to social change in Russia had to be the emancipation of the serfs • Opposition to serfdom had been growing since the 1700’s • “obstacle to economic development” as well as source of instability and revolts • Czar Alexander II (1861) freed serfs & compensated landowners for the loss of land and serfs • Serf labor obligations were gradually cancelled • Won few political rights and paid huge taxes on their “new land” • Their emancipation led to very little increase in agricultural production • Did create a large urban labor force necessary for industrialization

  27. Cultural Influences • African and Asian Influences on European Art • European artists took an interest in African & Asian artistic styles • Impressionism > based on Japanese influences in nature • Modern art was soon launched, free from traditional constraints • Cultural Policies of Meiji Japan • Heavily influenced by the Western culture • Japanese literature > writers experimented with Western verse • Architects & artists created large buildings of steel with Greek columns like those seen in the West • Leisure & Consumption • Industrialization brought about higher wages & fewer work hours … brought about new concept of “leisure time” • Advertisements > “needed things” • Newspapers, theaters, and professional sports all became popular