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Modern Era. Cold War, Korea, Vietnam, Hippies, Modern Day. Why so “Cold”?. Capitalism vs. Communism End of WWII into 1990’s United States vs . Soviet Union = Superpowers Cold because 2 countries never engaged in open fire warfare

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modern era

Modern Era

Cold War, Korea, Vietnam, Hippies, Modern Day

why so cold
Why so “Cold”?
  • Capitalism vs. Communism
  • End of WWII into 1990’s
  • United States vs. Soviet Union= Superpowers
  • Cold because 2 countries never engaged in open fire warfare
  • War of ideas (political & economic) rather than a battle of weapons
long term causes
Long Term Causes
  • Atomic bombs of Hiroshima & Nagasaki unleashed use of super-weapons
  • Every world power wanted access to nuclear weapons technology
  • Arms race between US & Soviet Union

immediate causes
Immediate Causes
  • Stalin= no free elections in Russia
  • Communism imposed throughout USSR
  • Stalin = untrustworthy, sinister, evil as Hitler
  • Winston Churchill “iron curtain has descended across the continent”
us plans
US Plans
  • Containment- also known as Truman Doctrine
    • Spread of Communism must stop w/ Russia
  • Marshall Plan-economic aid package sent to European nations suffering after WWII
    • Rebuilt Germany

Stalin views these both as threats

duck cover
Duck & Cover
  • Berlin, Germany= divided into East & West
  • Separated by Berlin Wall (1960s)
    • Kept Germans under Soviet control
  • East = Communist West= Capitalist
  • Berlin Airlift: US planes w/ aid & supplies flew in to help Germans over a year
  • NATO= North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    • US, Canada, & Western Europe
  • Warsaw Pact= Soviet Union & “buffer zone” nations btwn USSR & Europe
  • Arms race continues to strengthen- both had enough to destroy the world
major world events
Major World Events
  • Stalin dies= Nikita Khrushchev takes over
    • Invades Hungary & Czechoslovakia
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
    • Fidel Castro + Soviet Union
    • Soviet missiles stored in Cuba aimed at US
  • Bay of Pigs
    • Failed American invasion of Cuba

  • Korean War (1950-1953)
    • N. Korea(Communist) vs. S. Korea (Democracy)
    • Mao Zedong= Chinese leader, takes over N. Korea
    • 38th parallel divides Korea
    • UN sent forces, armistice signed, nations split
    • War for nothing
  • Vietnam Conflict (1960s)
  • Northern Vietnam vs. Southern Vietnam
  • N. Vietnam= Ho Chi Minh (Communist leader)
  • US military invasions turned Americans against US Govt
  • Hippies & War protestors of 1960s
  • President Nixon= leave Vietnam 1970s

  • Counter-Culture
  • Rebelled against rigid traditional values of 1950s
  • “hip” vs. “square”
  • Embraced diverse cultures (Eastern Asian religions, African music, communal living)
  • Psychedelic music
  • Sexual revolution
  • Drugs used for “exploring the mind” and “altered states of consciousness”
    • Marijuana, LSD, mushrooms
  • Haight-Ashbury & Woodstock

d tente
  • Détente- easing of Cold War tensions in 1970s
    • Soviets invade Afghanistan (1979)
    • Soviets beaten repeatedly by Afghan & US forces
    • Soviet economy depleted, people demand end of war
collapse of communism
Collapse of Communism
  • USSR allies began to break away
  • Mikhail Gorbachev in power (USSR)
  • Perestroika: complete overhaul of govt & economy of Russia
  • Glasnost: creation of open atmosphere for change (national & international)
  • Soviets still unable to fully recover

the end
The End
  • Berlin Wall torn down (1989)
    • Germany reunited
  • Russian Revolution of 1991
    • Gorbachev tries reverting back to Communism, Boris Yeltsin= new President of independent Russia
    • Military coup d’etat
oil conflicts
Oil Conflicts
  • Middle East nations: Oil control= political, economic, social power
  • OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, etc.)
    • Set price & quantity available
  • US supported Israel (Jewish)
    • OPEC nations withdrew oil supply from US= shortage
war for oil
War for Oil
  • Iraq attacked Iran(1980s) & Kuwait (1990)
    • Led by Saddam Hussein
  • Persian Gulf War
    • US forces sent in to stop Hussein
    • Iraq lost, but destroyed oil pipelines, environmental disaster
    • Hussein in control until captured & killed in 2006
  • Trade & Industrialization
  • NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement
    • Canada, US, Mexico
  • Industrialized nations depend on oil
    • Still a source of conflict today
  • Advanced communications & technology
  • Trade = Cultural diffusion & diversity worldwide
third world
Third World
  • Developing nations in Africa, Asia, & Latin America
    • Not as industrialized
    • Unstable government
    • Economic struggles (Communism vs. Capitalism)
  • Deliberate use of unpredictable violence, especially against civilians, to gain revenge or achieve political goals.
  • Used by groups or individuals that do not have a military of their own
  • Activities include bombings, kidnappings, assassinations, and hijackings
  • Areas of widespread terrorism Northern Ireland, the Middle East, and any area with American citizens, who have become a target of terrorist activities
  • Ex: Osama bin Laden. 9/11 attacks
  • Efforts to stop terrorism have seen limited success due to the random nature of its activities