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14 - Adolescence – Biosocial Development PowerPoint Presentation
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14 - Adolescence – Biosocial Development

14 - Adolescence – Biosocial Development

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14 - Adolescence – Biosocial Development

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  1. 14 - Adolescence – Biosocial Development Ages 11 to 18

  2. Puberty begins • Menarche = First menstrual period • Spermarche = First ejaculation • Puberty begins between 8 & 14 • 2/3 of the variation is genetic

  3. Physical changes • For girls • Breast development – growth spurt – menarche • For boys • Testes – initial pubic hair - spermarche

  4. Glandular changes • Hormones are secreted from: • Pituitary gland • Regulates growth • Controls adrenal and sex glands • Adrenal glands • Stress hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine • Gonads • Ovaries – female- Produce Estradiol (Estrogen) and Ova • Testicles – male – Produce Testosterone and sperm • Each sex produces an increased small amount of the other sex hormone

  5. Sequence of hormone production HPA & HPG HPA = Hypothalamus-Pituitary-adrenal axis HPG = Hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis

  6. Sex hormones & emotions • Relationship is Reciprocal • Hormones and trigger emotions, and emotions can trigger hormones

  7. Body rhythms • Circadian rhythms • Puberty alters the body rhythms • E.g. Awake at midnight and sleeping in the morning

  8. Body fat • Obesity = early onset of puberty • Malnutrition = late onset of puberty • Dramatic loss of weight will cause your period to stop

  9. Stress and puberty • Family conflict & stress = early onset of puberty • Correlation is not causation • Stress hormones are a direct cause of early puberty • Genes may be a factor • Early puberty = early sex • Increased sexual risk taking – More partners, pregnancies, & diseases

  10. Hitting puberty at normal ages is best • Early maturing girls • May be teased by boys • Lower self-esteem • More depression • Poorer body image • Early maturing boys • More aggression • Law-breaking • Alcohol-abusing • Early maturing in both sexes • Sexual activity & pregnancy = depression and other psychosocial problems

  11. Nutrition

  12. Body image • Anxiety about body image • Girls = Diet to get thin • Boys like thin girls • Boys = Taller and stronger • Girls like tall strong boys

  13. Eating disorders

  14. Anorexia • Self-starvation • Sees herself as fat when she is not • Fear of weight gain • Absence of menstruation • (Both adolescents and adults) • BMI = 18 or lower

  15. Bulimia • Binge (Compulsive overeating) and purge (Vomiting and laxatives) • Close to normal weight • Hormones • Childhood eating patterns • E.g. “eat everything on your plate”

  16. Origins of disordered eating • Origins • Culture – Fast food culture • Stress – Comfort food • Puberty • One strategy to reduce eating problems • Family eating together during childhood

  17. Transformations of Puberty

  18. Growth spurt • Growth is from the extremities to the core • Fingers - arms & legs - finally torso • Weight – Height – Muscle

  19. Organ growth • Lungs triple in size • Heart doubles in size • Skin becomes oilier (acne) • Pubic hair

  20. Sexual Maturation • Primary sex characteristics • Directly involved in reproduction • Uterus and testes grow • Secondary sex characteristics • Not directly involved in reproduction • Beard and breasts

  21. Sexual activity • Hormones - Thoughts and emotions • Society (Social context) - shapes thoughts, fantasies, shame, guilt, actual behavior • Religion – Shapes behavior • Virginity pledge • Delays first intercourse • Increases later pregnancy due to not using protection

  22. Sexual activity (Cont.) • Girls – Biologically interested in long term commitment-”Love me forever” • Boys – Biologically interested in multiple partners – “I want you now” • Protection (condoms) - Increased • Teen births – decreased • Abortions – Decreased • STD’s more common

  23. Sex to soon • Pregnant before age 15 • High blood pressure • Spontaneous abortion • Still born • Low birth weight • Other lifelong medical, educational and social problems • Poverty • Lack of education • No husband • Depression • Drug use

  24. Neurological Development • Excitement and emotional areas (Limbic system & Amygdala) develop before emotional regulation, analysis, and impulse control (Prefrontal cortex) develops. • When emotions are intense, the logical part of the brain shuts down • Deaths from accidents • Fun of immediate sex VS pregnancy & STD’s

  25. Sexual abuse • Most common in early puberty • Increases almost every problem • Early pregnancy • Drug abuse • Depression • Suicide • Tend to devalue themselves throughout life

  26. Sexually transmitted infections • Young people are less likely to recognize symptoms of a STI • HPV – Human Papillomavirus • Increased risk of uterine cancer and death • Immunization before first intercourse helps • Gardasil recommended for both boys and girls – given between 9 – 26 years old • Many parents do not want to immunize their 9 - 11 year olds (preferred ages for immunization). • “Since my child will not have sex, she does not need it.” • “If I give her the immunization, it is giving permission to have sex.”