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Development Policy and Management

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  1. Development Policy and Management PIA 2501 Week Seven Local Administration and Development: Democracy, Decentralization and the Myth of the Grassroots

  2. Discussion Danielle Loustau-Williams

  3. Reminder: Development Themes • Development Theory • Development Planning and Management • Governance, Local Government and Civil Society • Human Resource Development • Donors and Development

  4. Theme Three Governance, Local Government and Civil Society

  5. Three Issues • I. Governance • II. Local Government • III. Civil Society

  6. Democracy Video I. Governance

  7. Governance

  8. Governance and theState Sovereignty • Authority to Govern (Ostrom) Presumption of “Independence” • A National Government status given by International Community and by use of International Law "States will necessarily remain central actors in development policy and development management." Milton Esman

  9. International Criminal Court

  10. The Shift in Development Priorities Three Post-September 11 Issues: • Governance • NGOs and Civil Society • Human Resource Development

  11. Governance: an Overview of Issues • Focus of International Development: Post-2001: “Democracy and Governance” Human Rights (First Generation-Political) But not second (social) or third (economic)

  12. Terms Basic Terms: 1. The Environment of Development 2. Governance-Manner in which the state is created, modified or overthrown 3. Rule of Law

  13. Governance and Sovereignty "[T]ransformation (and globalization) has led to a reinvention of government and what it does“ - Anonymous

  14. Governance and Sovereignty • Rules of the Game politics: • Zero/sum vs. sum/sum politics • "Splintering” • Break up of states--centrifugal forces • Interest Group Liberalism: The goal? • Civil Society as organizational • Not the individual or the mass

  15. The Nature of Conflict

  16. Governance and Sovereignty • The need for apathy? • Constitutional vs. Social stability • Institutional structures: • Checks and balances • The Institutional State • What is the "Institutional State?” Why is it important?

  17. Governance and Democracy Three Views

  18. Types of Democracy: Terms • Direct Democracy • Actual direct participation of a population in decision-making about laws and regulations • Town hall or village model

  19. New England Town Hall

  20. Types of Democracy, Continued • Indirect Democracy • Some form of representative democracy • Pluralism • Existence of various diverse interest associations, individuals and groups within society (Focus on Tolerance)

  21. Nepal Poster

  22. Direct Democracy vs. Representative Democracy • Problem with Populism • Mob Justice • Minority rights • Shifting majorities • Problem with Plebiscites • Size and the Need for Indirect Representation

  23. James Madison and Democracy: The Warning • The problem with majorities • Tyranny • Factions

  24. Democracy: What is it? "It is only when men learn what it means to be free, and struggle to maintain proper limits upon the exercise of authority so that no one is allowed to become master of the others that human beings have the possibility of creating mutual relationships which they may freely enter and leave as they seek mutually productive patterns of human development." - Vincent Ostrom

  25. Vincent Ostrom, Tej Kumari Mahat and Elinor Ostrom

  26. Types of Democracy, cont. • Polyarchy • Diverse interest associations of society compete with each other over policy issues (Structured Pluralism) • Cooperative Movements (or Corporatism) • Diverse interest associations cooperate with each other and with organs of the state to make policy (Scandinavia)

  27. Robert Dahl (Yale University Born 1915) and Polyarchy

  28. Democracy: What is it? “The policy makers have rational interests--to develop their countries, to improve the condition of their people, to acquire or stay in power, or to steal as much as possible.” Peter Berger, Pyramids of Sacrifice

  29. Peter L. Berger (Born March 17, 1929, Boston University) Central to Peter Berger's work is the relationship between society and the individual

  30. Review: Governance and the Rule of Law • Albie Sachs • VIDEO

  31. Ten Minute Break

  32. II. Local Government- Focus onLocal Administration and Development Myths of the Grass Roots

  33. Governance Issues- Continued Local Government Defined: • Primary unit of government that has both political leadership and bureaucratic structures

  34. What Local Government Does

  35. CLGF Pacific Local Government Capacity Building Project

  36. What Local Government Does? • Services: local roads, sanitation, water, basic health, primary education • Depend Upon: Skilled Personnel • Fiscal/budget allocation • Taxes and transfers • Planning • Strategic priorities • Managing • Implementing

  37. Local Government and Development: The Goal Bottom Up Participation Planning vs. politics: myths of participation

  38. Decentralized Governance • Subsidiarity- higher units of Government should not do what can be done by lower units • Not always about democracy

  39. Reinventing Government?

  40. Decentralization and Local Government: Models • Devolution- Political • Deconcentration- administrative • Delegation- autonomous control • Privatization- private or non-profit sector

  41. Local Government and theLocal State • Local State (Local level national authority) vs. Local Government • Functional vs. Territorial Control • Devolution • Urban vs. Rural • Urban linked with Rural

  42. The Primary Unit of Government • Municipality: Lowest level with Bureaucrats • English/American • Town vs. county (Rural vs. Urban) • Continental European • Commune (no distinction between rural and urban)

  43. Swedish Local Government Organizations