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  1. Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  2. MIAMI 2008 A topical conference on elementary particles, astrophysics, and cosmology 16 - 21 December 2008 Lago Mar Resort and Club Fort Lauderdale Florida - USA My Talk: “A Flavour-Symmetric Perspective on Neutrino Mixing” Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  3. F. Englert “The 24 near-instabilities of Kasper-Klug Viruses” Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  4. Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  5. Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  6. F. Englert et al Phys. Rev. E 78, 031908 (2008) (Francois Englert (Brussels) of “Higgs Mechanism” fame: See F. Englert and R. Brout Phys.Rev.Lett. 13 (1964) 321). Hong-Kong 97 bacteriophage Virus Particle Explorer (ViPER) protein database The weak bonds serve to lift these zero modes, and the spectrum indeed exhibits a very low-frequency plateau of 24 modes 30 - 6 = 24 modes Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  7. Carl Bender Washington Universty (St Louis) Classical and Quantum Physics in the Complex Domain HARMONIC OSCILLATOR Newtons Law: F = m a Conclusion: In the complex domain classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are very much alike! Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  8. Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  9. Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  10. Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  11. P. Frampton: Predicts Cabbibo Angle: D. d’Angelo: Solar Neutrino Spectroscopy with Borexino P. de Barbero: Status of CMS Commissioning L. Pontecorvo: Status of the ATLAS Experiment N. Van Eldik: First Physics with ATLAS and CMS Special “Outreach” Lecture at the University: M. Spiropulu: The Universe in Collision: Discovery Physics at the LHC Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  12. pp 7Be 8B Survival probability after Borexino Assuming high-Z SSM (BPS 07), the 7Be rate measurement corresponds to Pee (7Be) = 0.56 ± 0.10 (1s) which is consistent with the number derived from the global fit to all solar and reactor experiments (S. Abe et al., arXiv: 0801.4589v2) Pee (7Be) = 0.541 ± 0.017 We determine the survival probability for 7Be and pp-ne, assuming BPS07 and using input from all solar experiments (Barger et al., PR (2002) 88, 011302) Pee (7Be) = 0.56 ± 0.08 Pee (pp) = 0.57 ± 0.09 Assuming high-Z SSM (BPS 07) the 8B rate measurement corresponds to Pee (8B) = 0.35 ± 0.10 @ 8.6 MeV mean energy D. D’Angelo – Borexino coll. Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL. Miami 2008 – Fort Lauderdale – 16-21 Dec. 2008

  13. A FLAVOUR-SYMMETRIC P. F. Harrison (U. of Warwick) W. G. Scott (STFC, PPD/RAL) Miami-2008 17 Dec 2008 PERSPECTIVE ON NEUTRINO MIXING “Tri-Bimaximal Lepton Mixing and the Neutrino Oscillation Data” P.F. Harrison, D. H. Perkins, W. G. Scott, Phys. Lett. B. 530 (2002) 167. hep-ph/0202074 (see also: HPS hep-ph/9904297 ) NOW OFFICIALLY A “FAMOUS” PAPER ( > 250 CITES). “A TREMENDOUS ACHIEVEMENT!” T. D. LEE AT CERN - 30 AUG 2007 (CERN indico video min. 42!!) OF COURSE IT IS ACTUALLY THEEXPERIMENTS WHICH ARE TREMENDOUS! OUTLINE OF TODAYS TALK: (emphasis on Flavour-Symmetry) 1) “Plaquette Invariants and the Flavour-Symmetric…” P.F. Harrison, D. R. J. Roythorne, and W. G. Scott, Phys. Lett. B 657 (2007) 210. arXive:0709.1439 [hep-ph] 2)“Real Invariant Matrices and Flavour-Symmetric…” P.F. Harrison, W. G. Scott and T. J. Weiler, Phys. Lett. B 641 (2006) 372. hep-ph/0607336 3)“Simplified Unitarity Triangles for the Lepton Sector…” J. D. Bjorken, P.F. Harrison, and W. G. Scott, Phys. Rev D 74 (2006) 073012. hep-ph0511201 4)“Covariant Extremisation of Flavour-Symmetric Jartlskog Invariants…” P.F. Harrison, and W. G. Scott Phys. Lett. B 628 (2005) 93. hep-ph/0508012 5) “The Simplest Neutririo Mass Matrix” P. F. Harrison and W. G. Scott Phys Lett. B B594 (2004) 324. hep-ph/0403278. …….. “Review” of past few years 2004-2007 of HS… Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  14. T. D. LEE LECTURE AT CERN 30 AUG 2007 CERN video: http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=19674 (min. 42) Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  15. WE DID “ACHIEVE” SOMETHING HOWEVER: WEPREDICTED TWOSM+PARAMETERS!!: Tri-Bi-Maximal (HPS 1999/2002) Tri-Maximal Mixing (HS/HPS 1994/1995) CHOOZ EXPT. SAYS < 0.03 (not HS/HPS!!) IMMEDIATELY GENERALISES HS/BHS (2002-2006) “ -Trimaximal Mixing” “S3 Group Mixing” “Magic-Square Mixing” “Tri-χφ-Maximal” via Tri-Phi-Maximal & Tri-Chi-Maximal (HS 2002) There was never a prediction from HPS/HS of exact Ue3≡0! Please not just “tri-maximal”!! Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  16. Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  17. THE “5/9-1/3-5/9” BATHTUB Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  18. Symmetries of TriBimaximal Mixing: 1) “CP symmetry” Zero CP violation J=0 (hopefully approximate!) 2) “μτ-reflection symmetry” “Two rows equal” (=Max CPV!) |Uμi|=|Uτi| for all i=1-3. 3) “democracy symmetry” one trimaximal eigenvector |Uαi|=|1/3 for all α for some i. Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  19. HPS “Derivation” of TriBimaximal Mixing: Harrison, Perkins, Scott, Phys. Lett. B. 530 (2002) 167.hep-ph/0202074 In the “circulant basis”: * 3 x 3 circulant (by definition of the * basis) 2 x 2 circulant (determines the physics) † † A popular choice: Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  20. YES – YOU’VE SEEN THESE NUMBERS BEFORE SOMEWHERE! e.g. M = 0 SUBSET OF CLEBSCH- GORDAN COEFFS. COULD PERHAPS BE A USEFUL REMARK ?!! See: J. D. Bjorken, P. F. Harrison and W.G. Scott. hep-ph/0511201 Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  21. “Symmetries and Generalisations of Tri-Bimaxiaml Mixing” P.F. Harrison, and W. G. Scott Phys. Lett. B 535 (2002) 163. hep-ph/0203029 “Tri-χ-Maximal Mixing” “Tri-Φ-Maximal Mixing” Exact μτ - Refl. Symm., J≠0 J=0, Break μτ-Symmetry Φ→0 Χ→0 “Permutation Symmetry, Tri-Bimaximal Mixing and the S3 Group ...” P.F. Harrison, and W. G. Scott Phys. Lett. B 557 (2003) 76. hep-ph/0302025 “Tri-φχ-maximalmixing”, “S3 group mixing” “Magic-square mixing”, “BHS-mixing”… . “ν2-Trimaximal Mixing” Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  22. “ -Trimaximal Mixing” =“Magic-Square”/”S3 Group Mixing” =“Democracy Symmetry” Nature Plays Sudoku !! “Permutation Symmetry, Tri-Bimaximal Mixing and the S3 Group ...” P.F. Harrison, and W. G. Scott Phys. Lett. B 557 (2003) 76. hep-ph/0302025 Symmetric Group S3 (natural representation): Experiment tells us that the neutrino mass matrix² in the (charged-lepton) flavour basis can be written as a 3 x 3 Magic Square !! † All row/column sums equal !! The most general such (hermitian) matrix may be constructed as an “S3 Group Matrix” in the natural representation of the S3 group ring † Any “S3 Group Matrix” clearly has (at least) one trimaximal eigenvector: “circulant” “retro-circulant” Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  23. τ e μ Uτ3 1σ Simplified Unitarity Traingles in the Lepton Sector J. D. Bjorken, P.F. Harrison, and W. G. Scott, Phys. Rev D 74 (2006) 073012. hep-ph0511201 “BHS” Mixing = “ν2-Trimaximal” “ν2.ν3”=“the ν1-triangle” Ue3 Uμ3 The Matrix* of UT angles: *Footnote [42] hep-ph/0511201 Note the natural “complementary” labelling of angles and triangles Each angle Φαiappears in one row-based triangle and one column-based triangle Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  24. “Simplified Unitarity Triangles for the Lepton Sector…” J. D. Bjorken, P.F. Harrison, and W. G. Scott, Phys. Rev D 74 (2006) 073012. hep-ph/0511201 From the Plaquette Products: Form the Matrix of Plaquette Products: We define the Matrix of UT Angles:* *Footnote [42] hep-ph/0511201 Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  25. “d.b”=“the s-triangle” “t.u”=“the c-triangle” (in SM - see e.g. F. Muheim “Flavour in the Era of LHC” HEP Forum 21 June 2007) α d α t u b β+χ γ β γ -χ χ c s UNITARITY TRIANGLES IN THE QUARK SECTOR THE MATRIX OF UNITARITY TRIANGLES IN THE QUARK SECTPR Systematic “complemenatry” notation here is a big improvement on existing notations!! EQUIVALENT INFO. TO CKM MATRIX !! Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  26. “Plaquette Invariants and the Flavour-Symmetric …” P.F. Harrison, D. R. J. Roythorn, and W. G. Scott, Phys. Lett. B 657 (2007) 210. arXive:0709.1439 [hep-ph] † The Principles which guide us: † 1) Flavour Symmetry:A fundamental theory of flavour should be Flavour-Symmetric (ie. it should make no reference to explicit flavour indices). 2) Jarlskog Invariance:A fundamental theory should be weak-basis independent (i.e. it should make no reference to any preferred weak-basis). Use Flavour-Symmetric Jarlskog Invariant variables!! The Architypal example: The Jarlskog CP-Invariant: The Jarlskogian J is “odd-odd” under separate l and ν flavour permutations: Independent, of plaquette choice l,ν hence “Plaquette Invariant” We define 6 New Flavour-Symmetric Jarlskog-Invariant mixing variables : with odd/even symmetry under: (functions only of mixing angles) spanning the Invariant polynomial ring An `elemental” set - not all independent, e,g, Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  27. Jarlskog Invariance: (Also known as Weak-Basis Invaraince) In any “weak” (“gauge”) basis the weak interaction is diagonal and universal (i.e proportional to the identity matrix) We often seem to choose to blame the mixing on the “down” quarks! weak basis But we could equally choose to blame it on the “up”-type quarks! weak basis CC weak int. U(3) Elsewhere in the Lagrangian: (i.e in the yukawa sector) Mass² Matrices Mu is diagonal (Md is non-diagonal) Md is diagonal (Mu is non-diagonal) All observables are Jarlskog Invariant: e.g. masses, mixing angles: Note that the Jarlskogian J is (moreover) also Flavour-Symmetric !! Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  28. † FLAVOUR-SYMMETRIC JARLSKOG INVARIANT MASS PARAMETERS Charged-Leptons: Mass Matrix: Neutrinos: Mass Matrix: Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  29. THE CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION e.g. For the Charged-Lepton Masses: where: The Disciminant: All are Flavour-Symmetric and Jarlskog Invariant!! Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  30. Flavour-Symmetric Mixing Observables… 2 x 2 of P.F. Harrison, D. R. J. Roythorn, and W. G. Scott, Phys. Lett. B 657 (2007) 210. arXive:0709.1439 [hep-ph] Six New FS Variables (“Plaquette Invariants”) A, B, C, D, F, G, analogous to Jarlskog J, order (n) with odd/even symmetry under - scalar or pseudoscalar. B, D are notl ↔ν symmetric Not all independent Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  31. Plaquette Invariance (= Invariance) “PLAQUETTE INVARIANT”!!! Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  32. Flavour-Symmetric Weak-Basis-Invariant Constraints on Mixing: Democracy Symmetry ie. one column=(1/3,1/3.1/3), iff: “ μ–τ ” - Reflection Symmetry, ie. two rows (or columns) equal, iff: Tri-Bi-Maximal Mixing, iff: Solving more generally for the P-matrix in the limit F, A, C → 0 and 0 < G < 1/6, gives: Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  33. Ansatz F G C A Symm. 18J B D Tri-Bi-Max. 0 1/6 0 0 Dem., μτ, CP 0 0 1/12√3 Tri-Max. Mix. 0 0 0 0 Dem., μτ1/6 0 0 Tri-χφ-Max. 0 - 0 - Dem.(ocracy) - 0 - 2 Rows Eq. 0 - - 0 e.g. μ-τ - 0 - 2 Cols. Eq. 0 - - 0 e.g. 1-2 - - 0 Alt.-Feruglio 0 - (6G-1)/8 0 μτ, CP 0 0 - Tri-χ-Max. 0 - 0 0 Dem., μτ - 0 - Tri-φ-Max. 0 1/6 0 - Dem., CP 0 0 - Orig. Bi-Max. 0 1/8 -1/32 0CP, μ-τ,1-2 0 0 0 No Mixing 1 1 1 1 CP 0 0 0 Jarlskog J measures CP-violation (J=0 protects against violation of CP). F measures the acoplanarity of the P-vectors in the flavour space (F=0 => Det <P(∞)> = 0, i.e. protects distant source against flavour analysis) G = 3<<Pll(∞)>>-1 measures the flavour-averaged asymptotic survival prob…. Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  34. Directly in Terms of Mass Matrices: † † The Jarlskog Commutator: controls CP violation: Generalised Jarlskog Commutators: And Anti-Commutators: The Matrix of Cubic Commutator Traces The Matrix of Anti-Commutator Traces (traces of mass-matrix products): For example, F: In terms of Mass Matrices only Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  35. “Real Invariant Matrices and Flavour-Symmetric…” P.F. Harrison, W. G. Scott and T. J. Weiler, Phys. Lett. B 641 (2006) 372. hep-ph/0607336 The “P-matrix”: “T-matrix” Moment Transform: (invertible) The “K-matrix” ”permanent” “Q-matrix” Moment Transform: (invertible) Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  36. Expressed as Traces entirely in terms of Mass Matrices Two quadratic variables G,F No l↔ν asymmetric quadratic variables: Two l↔ν symmetric cubic variables C,A: Two l↔ν asymmetric cubic variables B,D: Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  37. Expressed as Traces (cont.) entirely in terms of Mass Matrices The Mass-Polynomial Matrices Requd: Anti-symmetric Matrix Symmetric Matrix Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  38. Flavour-Summed Loop Amplitudes 4-Plaquette Usual Plaquette Product: Hexaplaquette Product: 6-Plaquette even odd purely real Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  39. More Flavour-Symmetric Constarints: !!! Completely Symmetric CKM P-matrix: Extremise a “Potential”, e.g.: Tri-Bi-Maximal Mixing !!! Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  40. EXTREMISATION: A TRIVIAL EXAMPLE In the SM: Yukawa couplings Add to SM Action, the determinant : (taken here to be dimensionless) i. e. e.g. i.e. 2 zero mass 1 non-zero! NOT BAD!! This notion appeared in: P.F. Harrison and W. G. Scott Phys. Lett. B 333 (1994) 471. hep-ph/9406351 Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  41. “Covariant Extremisation of Flavour-Symmetric….” Extremising: Extremising: P.F. Harrison, and W. G. Scott Phys. Lett. B 628 (2005) 93. hep-ph/0508012 The Jarlskog Commutator: Characteristic Equationn: † We extremise wrt Mass Matrices theselves: † 3 x 3 Max (=ΣPrincipal Minors C) 2 x 2 Max et perms. Extremising: “The Simplest Neutrino Mass Matrix” P. F. Harrison and W. G. Scott PLB 594 (2004) 324. hep-ph/0403278 Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  42. Extremise wrt the Mass matrices themselves! Exploit Matrix Calculus Theorem Where Ais any constant matrix andX is a variable matrix. Apply to Extremise Tr C³ Weak-Basis Covariant !! Apply to Extremise Tr C² Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  43. “the epsilom matrix”: The “Epsilon” Phase Convention* The usual (charged-lepton) flavour basis has not been completely defined. There remains the freedom to re-phase the fields such that he imaginary part of the neutrino mass matrix is proportional to the epsilon matrix Incredible but true!! † Now the 7 parameters a, b, c, d, x, y, z encode directly the 3 neutrino masses and the usual 4 mixing parameters. *See Footnote 1 of: “The Simplest Neutrino Mass Matrix” P. F. Harrison & W. G. Scott Phys Lett. B B594 (2004) 324.hep-ph/0403278 Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  44. Try a simple linear combination of the two: Take r to be a constant with dimensions of (mass)² With the “Magic-Square constraint” imposed there are analytical solutions: In practice: X In general, for sufficiently extreme hierarcy h → 0, we are close to the pole at X →0, i.e. x→∞ and we have |x| >> y, z, whereby the “Simplest” assumption must hold. In this sense this V(C) above points to the “Simplest Neutrino Mass Matrix” despite that in practice (in actuality!) the hierarchy h is too large!! Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  45. ”The Simplest Neutrino Mass Matrix” P. F. Harrison and W. G. Scott Phys Lett. B594 (2004) 324. hep-ph/0403278. In the charged-lepton flavour basis, ie. where Is diagonal, we impose: “Democracy Symmetry” the “democracy operator” Ie. commutes with “Mu-Tau Reflection Symmetry” (“mutautivity”) the “μτ-exchange operator” Note definition includes a complexconjugation Finally, implementing the “Simplest” Condition: Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  46. CONCLUSIONS • “Tri-BiMaximal Mixing” has useful partners “Tri-χ-Maximal Mixing”, • and “Tri-φ-Maximal Mixing” and more generally “Tri- χφ-Maximal Mixing” • (now “ν2-Trimaximal Mixing”) which are also consistent with the data. 2) We have introduced 6 New Flavour-Symmetric Mixing Observables, A,B,C,D,F,G which like the Jarlskogian J can be used to constrain the mixings in an entirely flavour-symmetric way. 3) A programme of Extremisiing Flavour Symmetric Jarlskog Invariants, Is under way with the aim of constraining both Mixings and Masses. Thus far the best that can be said is that our results point towards “The Simplest…” PLB 594 (2004) 324 (hep-ph/0403278) and Θ13~ 0.13. Again T. D. Lee’s lecture (a 2nd clip- from earlier in his talk) Inspirational for anyone working on fermion mixing and flavour etc. : “….these two 3 x 3 matrices (CKM and MNS) are the cornerstones of particle physics… ….but do we understand them???” Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  47. T. D. Lee CERN colloquium Aug 2007 Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  48. SPARE SLIDES AND SLIDES IN PROGRESS Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  49. UP-TO-DATE FITS A. Strumia and F. Vissani Nucl.Phys. B726 (2005) 294. hep-ph/0503246 IS THE BEST MEASURED MIXING ANGLE !!! Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.

  50. Extremising Tr C² (non-trivial solution …continued) P.F. Harrison, and W. G. Scott Phys. Lett. B 628 (2005) 93.hep-ph/0508012 Absolute neutrino masses not yet measured, but with the “minimalist” assumption of a normal classic fermionic neutrino spectrum we may make a unique prediction for the MNS mixing: The only operative parameter then becomes: (b-a)/(a-c) and setting: X In clear disagreement with experiment. All the the right numbers in all the wrong places!! Presented by: W. G. Scott, PPD/RAL.