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Impacts of Improved Cooking Stove Usage Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial Gunther Bensch Jörg Peters RWI Esse PowerPoint Presentation
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Impacts of Improved Cooking Stove Usage Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial Gunther Bensch Jörg Peters RWI Essen 34th IAEE International Conference Stockholm, June 20 2011. Introduction.

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Impacts of Improved Cooking Stove Usage Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial Gunther Bensch Jörg Peters RWI Esse


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    1. Impacts of Improved Cooking Stove Usage Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial Gunther Bensch Jörg Peters RWI Essen 34th IAEE International Conference Stockholm, June 20 2011

    2. Introduction • 37 percent of world’s population rely on biomass as primary fuel for cooking (IEA 2009) • implications on • environment Ø energy expenditures • health Ø women’s workload • dissemination of improved cooking stoves (ICS) considered an effective instrument to combat these effects • rigorous impact evaluation so far focused on health issue • evidence for Africa completely lacking • we evaluate impacts of ICS usage in urban and rural Senegal Bensch and Peters: Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination in Rural Senegal

    3. ICS impact evaluation setup in Senegal Bensch and Peters: Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination in Rural Senegal

    4. ConclusionCross-sectional study • Average per dish savings rate of 25 % • substantial absolute charcoal savings in spite of widespread non-ICS-usage among ICS owners • environmental impacts can be accomplished in urban areas at comparatively low administrative costs • strong impacts on the level of health and impacts at all on gender and education are precluded by: • strong LPG usage • charcoal being an already cleaner woodfuel that is easy to obtain • interventions seeking for health and other highly aggregated impacts have to be clearly poverty targeted (e.g. rural areas) Bensch and Peters: Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination in Rural Senegal

    5. ICS impact evaluation setup in SenegalRandomized controlled trial areas without access to ICS • avoid distorting effects of selecting into treatment processes Jambar improved firewood stove Three stones stove vs. Bensch and Peters: Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination in Rural Senegal

    6. Identification Strategy • Mean treatment effect on the treated M : • E = conditional expectations • Y = impact variables • T = treatment ( T=1: lottery winner, T=0: lottery loser ) • baseline (t=0) and follow-up (t=1) data at hand • difference-in-difference estimator DD : X, Z = sets of household and dish-related characteristics X = set of household-related characteristics j = dishes throughout the day Bensch and Peters: Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination in Rural Senegal

    7. Identification StrategyY = impact variables Bensch and Peters: Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination in Senegal

    8. Impact AssessmentFirewood consumption per dish Bensch and Peters: Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination in Rural Senegal

    9. DataSurvey tools • major survey tool: structured socio-economic questionnaire with focus on solid fuel use • stove-specific data for all meals prepared throughout a typical day • amount of fuel used • cooking duration • number of persons cooked for • in addition: frequency of stove use per week to account for stoves not being used every day • complemented by semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions Bensch and Peters: Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination in Rural Senegal

    10. DataParticipant Flow Bensch and Peters: Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination in Rural Senegal

    11. Success of RandomizationBalancing and ICS uptake • Experimental Validation Regressionconfirms proper balancingofcomparisongroups • ICS uptake close to 100 % • 96 % of ICS are used at least 7 times per week • ICS predominantly used stove in 87 % of ICS winning households Bensch and Peters: Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination in Rural Senegal

    12. Thanks for your attention! Bensch and Peters: Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination in Rural Senegal

    13. DataSample • survey among 253 randomly sampled households • 12 villages in rural Senegal • areas without access to ICS • lottery to randomize ICS ownership with 98 winning households Figure adapted from AfDB Bensch and Peters: Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination in Rural Senegal

    14. DataSurvey implementation 253 households (HH) 12 villages 98 stoves 155 sacs of rice (5kg) 3 visits 249 HH 94 stoves in use 227 HH 88 stove users Bensch and Peters: Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination in Rural Senegal

    15. Cooking behaviour • Distinction between two overarching cooking patterns • ‘LPG always users’ who almost only use LPG and use charcoal merely for special occasions • ‘simultaneous users’ who use LPG complementarily to charcoal Household classification according to stove usage pattern • Focussing impact assessment on 'simultaneous users' Bensch and Peters: Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination in Rural Senegal

    16. ImpactsCharcoal consumption per dish • OLS Regression on stove level • Dependent variable: Charcoal consumption in kg per dish prepared 25% Bensch and Peters: Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination in Senegal

    17. Impact AssessmentTotal charcoal savings • Total charcoal savings induced by the project can be determined based on the dish savings rate and city-specific data on • charcoal consumption per Malagasy stove • ICS disseminated by the project from 2006 to 2009 • discount factor accounting for irregular ICS users in ‘LPG always users’ group • 1.5 percent of total national charcoal consumption • 7.5 percent of Dakar consumption