5 Levels of Organization Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organism
Cells are the smallest level of organization in living things. Cells
Cell come in many types • Nerve cells Skin cells Muscle cells
Cells + Cells = Tissue There are 4 types of tissue in your body: Connective Nerve Epithelial Muscle Tissue
Tissue + Tissue = Organ Organs are what we usually think about when we think about parts of the body Organ
Connective tissue makes up organs like the bones, blood vessels, tendons, ligaments, etc… Fat tissue is a type of connective tissue Fat tissue burns 2-3 calories per pound per day, (compared to muscle tissues 7-10). Organ
Nerve Tissue Makes up organs like the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Organ
Epithelial Tissue makes up organs like the skin, hair, and fingernails Organ
Muscle tissue makes up organs like the heart, stomach, kidneys, lungs, biceps, etc… Organ
Organ + Organ = Organ System You have 11 organ systems in your body. Organ System
1-Integumentary System The integumentary system is a temperature regulator, sensory system, and protects the organism. (first line of defense.) Skin, hair, and fingernails are some organs that make up the integumentary system. Organ Systems
Integumentary system facts: Skin is the largest organ in your body. Skin is 16% of your body weight You completely replace your skin cells about once per month. About 90% of dust in your house is dead skin cells. Hair is the fastest growing organ in the body Average #s of hairs: redheads= 80,000 Brown/black = 100,000 Blondes = 120,000 Fingernails grow faster during the summer and on your dominant hand. Your skin gets rid of 20% of your bodily waste products. The most sweat glands on your body are in your feet, and the least are on your back. Women have more sweat glands than men Organ Systems
Organ Systems • How would your life be different without your integumentary system? • How long do you think you could survive?
2- Muscular system The muscular system allows us to move Biceps, triceps, hamstring, and quadriceps, are all organs in the muscular system. Organ Systems
Muscular system facts: The busiest muscles in your muscular system are your eyes. They move more than 100,000 times per day! The largest muscle in your body is the gluteus maximus It takes 17 muscles to smile and 42 to frown. Muscles can’t push, they can only pull. Muscles can’t function without calcium. Organ Systems
Organ Systems • How would your life be different without your muscular system? • How long do you think you could survive?
Organ Systems • 3- Skeletal system • The skeletal system provides support and protection for vital organs. • Bones, ligaments, and tendons are some organs that make up a skeletal system.
Skeletal system facts: Your body has about 206 bones although you were born with over 300 bones. You have the same number of bones in your neck as a giraffe does! Bone marrow makes blood cells, but bones are alive, and would die without blood. The longest bone in your body is your femur. (Thigh) Your bones are about 60% calcium compounds. Over half of the bones in your entire body are in your hands and feet. Organ Systems
Organ Systems • How would your life be different without your skeletal system? • How long do you think you could survive?
4- Nervous system The nervous system sends messages that control body functions The brain, spinal cord, and nerves are some organs in the nervous system. Organ Systems
Nervous system facts: Your nervous system functions using electricity. Messages can travel through your neurons at speeds of 250 mph! The avg. # of neurons in a human brain is 100 billion. (The same as the number of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy) The longest neuron (nerve cell) known to man is 15 feet long (in a giraffe leg). If you lined up all the neurons in your body, it would stretch 600 miles! Your brain is 2% of your bodies weight, but uses 20% of your bodies energy. Paralysis happens when the brain can’t communicate with a certain part of the body. Organ Systems
Organ Systems • How would your life be different without your nervous system? • How long do you think you could survive?
5- Endocrine System The endocrine system produces chemicals that control the body (ex. Hormones) The adrenal glands, pituitary gland (in brain) and pancreas are all organs in the endocrine system. Organ Systems
Endocrine system facts: Steroids, insulin, and adrenaline are 3 of the 30 hormones made by your body. It only takes a tiny bit of a hormone to cause a very large reaction Physical growth, hyperactivity, depression, stress, hunger and many other emotions are linked to hormone production. Organ Systems
Organ Systems • How would your life be different without your endocrine system? • How long do you think you could survive?
6- Cardiovascular system (circulatory) The cardiovascular system carries food and oxygen to the cells, and carries carbon dioxide away from the cells. Your heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries, are organs in the cardiovascular system. Organ Systems
Cardiovascular system facts: The heart beats about 3,000,000,000 times during an average lifetime, and pumps enough blood in one day to fill the tank of a fire engine. It takes 20 seconds for blood to make a complete trip through your circulatory system. You have more than 60,000 miles of blood vessels and arteries in your body. (you could wrap them around the world twice. You have about 5 million red blood cells, 10,000 white blood cells, and 250,000 platelets in 1 drop of blood. Arteries take blood away from the heart, and veins return it to the heart. Moving helps return blood to your heart You do NOT have blue blood! Organ Systems The Bloodmobile song
Organ Systems • How would your life be different without your cardiovascular system? • How long do you think you could survive?
7- Lymphatic system (Immune system) The lymphatic system returns leaked fluids to blood vessels, and helps fight off germs. Lymph nodes, lymph vessels, thymus, spleen, and tonsils are all organs in the lymphatic system. Organ Systems
Lymphatic system facts: Your lymph system releases white blood cells to fight off infection. Your lymph nodes swell up when the fill up with white blood cells (when you are sick) Your spleen helps break down and recycle RBCs. Your lymph system returns about ½ cup of lymph fluid to the heart per hour. Domestic birds don’t have lymph nodes. Most of your lymph nodes are in your armpits, neck, and groin. Organ Systems
Organ Systems • How would your life be different without your lymph system? • How long do you think you could survive?
8- Respiratory system The respiratory system exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide. (O2 in and CO2 out). Lungs, Bronchi, trachea, and diaphragm are all organs in the respiratory system. Organ Systems
Respiratory system facts: You breathe in 21% oxygen and .4% Carbon dioxide, you breathe out 16% oxygen and 4% carbon dioxide. You have the same surface area on you lungs as a tennis court. You breathe out about ½ of a liter of water per day. Your right lung is slightly larger than your left. Every day you breath in about 88 pounds of air. Your respiratory system gets rid of 70% of your bodily waste products IPod activity Organ Systems
How would your life be different without your respiratory system? How long do you think you could survive? Organ Systems
9- Digestive System The digestive system breaks food down into nutrients that can be absorbed by the body. The mouth, liver, stomach, and intestines are some of the organs in the digestive system. Organ Systems
Digestive system facts: The average stomach can hold about 1.5 liters of food. Your intestines are lined with tiny projections called villi. They increase the surface area of your intestines so you can absorb as much as possible. Your intestines are about 15 meters long! Food stays in your stomach for 2-4 hours. Your digestive system gets rid of 3% of your bodily waste products Towel observation Organ Systems
Organ Systems • How would your life be different without your digestive system? • How long do you think you could survive?
10- Urinary System The urinary system removes waste from the blood and regulates body fluids. Kidneys, ureters, and the bladder are all organs in the urinary system. Organ Systems
Urinary system facts: Your bladder can hold about 400 ml of urine. The blood in your body passes through each kidney 400 times per day. The kidneys use osmosis to control the amount of water in the blood. Caffeine and alcohol are diuretics, which means that they suppress the part of your brain that tells your body that you need to retain water. (increases urination - dehydration) Your urinary system gets rid of 7% of your bodily waste products. Organ Systems
Organ Systems • How would your life be different without your urinary system? • How long do you think you could survive?
Organ Systems • 11- Reproductive system • The reproductive system enables the organism to produce offspring • Ovaries and uterus in a female and testes in a male are organs in the reproductive system.
Reproductive system facts: The largest cell in the human female body is the egg in the ovaries. An adult male makes about 500 million sperm per day. A female is born with about 600,000 immature eggs. A female body is capable of giving birth to 35 children in her lifetime. Twins form when one fertilized egg splits into two parts (identical), or when two sperm fertilize 2 eggs at the same time (non-identical). Organ Systems
Which organ system do you think is most important? Which organ systems couldn’t function without other organ systems? Organ Systems
Quiz time! • Which level of organization do each of the following pictures belong to?