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Concepts. Geography I. POPULATION. Distribution. spread across surface uneven and changes dot map dots represent people crowded sparcely populated. POPULATION. Dot map. 1 dot represents 100 000 people. Density. number of people per km 2 total population/area choropleth map

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concepts

Concepts

Geography I

population1
Distribution

spread across surface

uneven and changes

dot map

dots represent people

crowded

sparcely populated

POPULATION
dot map
Dot map

1 dot represents 100 000 people

population2
Density

number of people

per km2

total population/area

choropleth map

generalisation

hide concentrations

POPULATION
choropleth map
Choropleth map

Over 500 people per km2

200/500 people per km2

100/199 people per km2

population5
Population growth

death rate

birth rate

natural increase

natural decrease

POPULATION
population6
Demographic transition model

total population

population change

birth rate

death rate

natural increase

natural decrease

four stages

POPULATION
the demographic transition model
The demographic transition model

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

Stage 5

population7
Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

very hight fluctuating birth and death rates

birth rate very hight, death rate falling rapidly

birth rate falling rapidly, death rate falling slowly

birth and death rates falling slowly

POPULATION
population8
Population structures

population pyramid:

birth rate

death rate

life expectancy

age groups

males – females

population growth

POPULATION
population pyramid
Population pyramid

Stage 1

Life expectancy

65

Economicly active

15

Death rate

males

females

Birth rate

population pyramid1
Population pyramid

Life expectancy

Stage 2

65

Economicly active

15

Death rate

males

females

Birth rate

population pyramid2
Population pyramid

Life expectancy

Stage 3

65

Economicly active

15

Death rate

males

females

Birth rate

population pyramid3
Population pyramid

Life expectancy

Stage 4

65

Economicly active

15

Death rate

males

females

Birth rate

population9
Dependency ratio

Non economically active

(children 0-14 and elderly over 65)

Economically active

(working age 15-64)

100 =dependency ratio

(how many dependent for 100 working age)

POPULATION
population10
Population trends

population explosion

always growing

LEDCs more rapidly

only estimates

fastest growth – Africa, Asia and Latin America

slowest growth – Europe, North America and Australasia

most population live in Asia

POPULATION
population11
Changing population structures

Too many under 15s

stages 2 – 3

high birth rates

proportion 40%

work on farms

infant mortality rate

religion

lack of education

contraceptives

POPULATION
population12
Changing population structures

Too few under 15s

approaching stage 5

natural decrease

replacement rate

workers

technology

services

social care for elderly

one-child policy

POPULATION
population13
Changing population structures

Ageing population

increase in life expectancy

standard, hygiene, health care

diet, medical knowledge

proportion 20%

amount of money

services

POPULATION
migration3
net migration gain

net migration loss

MIGRATION
  • migration balance

emigrants immingrants

emigrants immingrants

migration4
Voluntary migration

employment

pioneers

territorial expansion

better climate

social amenities

family

MIGRATION
migration5
Forced migration

persecution

war

slaves

discrimination

famine

disasters

overpopulation

MIGRATION
migration6
Refugees

forced migration

15 million

80% developing

bad conditions

MIGRATION
migration7
Economic migrants

voluntary

assimilation

labour shortage

restriction

ethnic minority

concentration/segregation

MIGRATION
migration8
Differences:

wealth

education

colour

religion

quality of environment

MIGRATION

Economic migrants

  • Difficulties:
      • housing
      • education
      • jobs
      • discrimination
      • crime
migration9
Push factors:

poor-quality housing

decline of industries

poorly paid jobs

poor transport links

pollution

fewer social amenities

MIGRATION

Urban-to-rural migration

  • Pull factors:
      • better housing
      • footloose industries
      • better paid jobs
      • better transport links
      • better services
      • cultural amenities
migration10
Counterurbanisation

reverse direction

dormitory settlements

commuter settlements

suburbanised villages

MIGRATION
migration11
Reasons:

employment

housing

changed family status

environment factors

social factors

MIGRATION

Counterurbanisation

  • Which groups:
      • higher income
      • higher skills
      • better qualified
      • parents – young families
settlement1
Site

Situation

point

local relief

soil

water supply

resources

surrounding features

determines growth

Settlement
settlement2
Situation

wet-point site

dry-point site

building material

defence

fuel supply

food supplies

nodal points

bridging points

shelter and aspect

Settlement
slide39

increasingly rural

increasingly urban

slide42

several mill.

Hierarchy

distance appart

over 200 km

100-200 km

50-100 km

20-50 km

5-10 km

2-3 km

500 metres

1000,000,

1-2 mill.

100,000

10,000-20,000

several hundred

5/6 buildings

1 family

settlement4
Hierarchy

population size

range of services

number of services

sphere of influence

threshold population

range

Settlement
settlement8
Land use and functional zones

land value

space

competition - demand

age

accessibility

wealth of inhabitants

Settlement
settlement9
UrbanisationSettlement

CBC – hirgh-rise, shops, banks, offices

inner city - terraced housing, 19th cent. industry, low quality h.

inner city – high-rise flats, redeveloped

outer suberbs – interwar medium, postwar high-quality housing,

edge of the city – green belt, greenfield, commuter villages

settlement10
Central business district

the oldest and most accessible

limited space

shops, banks and offices

high-rise building

shops with high profit margin and threshold population

congestion

Settlement
settlement11
Old inner city

industry in the 19th century

low-cost housing (terraced houses)

high density, few amenities

corner shops

1960s – urban redevelopment and renewal

social problems

skilled manual workers

many born outside of the UK

Settlement
settlement12
suburbia

inter-war period

public and private transport

medium-cost housing

parades

park or play areas

introduction of town planning

owner-occupied

most non-manual and born in the UK

Settlement
settlement13
Rural-urban gringe

1960s – private and city council housing

high-cost housing

low density

free of traffic with open space

skilled manual and form the UK

easier access

Settlement