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Life in the New State. Antebellum North Carolina. Industrial Revolution creates booming economies The Indian Removal Act forces Eastern Indian Nations to leave their homelands Slavery divides Northern and Southern states. The Second Great Awakening. 1801 Religious movement spreads

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antebellum north carolina
Antebellum North Carolina
  • Industrial Revolution creates booming economies
  • The Indian Removal Act forces Eastern Indian Nations to leave their homelands
  • Slavery divides Northern and Southern states
the second great awakening
The Second Great Awakening
  • 1801
  • Religious movement spreads
  • EVANGELICAL IDEAS
  • Preachers with emotion
  • Tensions between people focused on government (world) and people of faith
religion and democracy
Religion and Democracy
  • Evangelicals: forget past, start fresh
  • Individual effort and responsibility
  • Worth not based on society or $$$
  • In NC, church center of community
  • Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian dominate NC
the question of slavery
The Question of Slavery
  • Christianity spreads to slaves (converted)
  • If equal in God’s eyes should they be equal in society too?
  • Bible
  • Religion allows people to relate to history and others
  • Northern states: Antislavery movement (ABOLITIONISM)
  • Slavery would tear the nation apart
prosperity in the east
Prosperity in the East
  • Early 1800’s: economic and political power held by merchants/planters in east NC
  • U.S. population growing rapidly
  • Farming improved by technology
  • Eli Whitney patented the COTTON GIN (separated cotton from seeds quickly)
  • Cotton more profitable (farmed more)
  • More slaves needed to plant and harvest cotton
bright leaf tobacco
Bright Leaf Tobacco
  • New kind of tobacco planted
  • Became major crop with high demand
  • Northeast NC known as “bright tobacco belt”
  • NC tobacco production tripled in 10 years
a life enslaved
A Life Enslaved
  • 1830: 1/3 of state’s population were slaves
  • Some eastern counties, more slaves than free persons
  • Slaves: many skills, few legal rights
  • Owners could whip, abuse, kill slaves
  • Slaves: own culture with blend of African + American traditions
  • Earned privileges in return for good work ($, goods, even freedom)
out after dark
Out After Dark
  • Slaves often visited family/friends on other farms
  • Married slaves often lived on other farms
  • Jeff Ellick lived 10 miles away from wife and children
  • Must carry passes from masters (ID)
  • “pattie rollers” enforced ID’s
  • Mad chase if slave had no ID
sold away
Sold Away
  • Little control over their own fate
  • Family members sold off
  • Tears families apart
free blacks
Free Blacks
  • NC had small group of free blacks
  • Lived in Eastern towns
  • Free for generations, paid for freedom, owners gave them freedom
  • 1860 New Bern: 700 free blacks (10% of pop.)
war of 1812
War of 1812
  • Tensions between U.S. and Britain
  • Britain and France at War (Napoleon)
  • British seize U.S. ships and supplies
  • Forced sailors to work on British ships (IMPRESSMENT)
  • Some members of Congress call for war (warhawks)
  • Canada apart of United States?
war of 18121
War of 1812
  • President James Madison declares war
  • British-Indian alliance defeats American troops in Canada
  • British blockade
  • British invade Washington D.C. and burn White House
  • Andrew Jackson (General)
  • Won battles at Horseshoe Bend (AL) and New Orleans
peace
Peace
  • December 1814: Treaty signed on Christmas Eve
  • Effects: Indians forced to give up land
  • U.S. given a morale boost- stood up to British empire, patriotic feelings lead to united nation
nc in the war
NC in the War
  • Fought mostly on coast
  • Chesapeake Bay (VA) blockaded
  • Goods exported through NC
  • Shallow rivers, dangerous coastline
  • British raid coastal towns for supplies
  • 1813: British invade Portsmouth and Ocracoke Island
  • Militia head to towns and British retreat
north carolinians in the war
North Carolinians in the War
  • Otway Burns (privateer)
  • Permission from U.S. government to capture British merchant ships
  • Capture millions of dollars worth of goods
johnston blakely
Johnston Blakely
  • Naval captain
  • The Wasp captured ships in the Atlantic and English Channel
  • Wasp vanished (sank, disappeared?)
andrew jackson and junaluska cherokee
Andrew Jackson and Junaluska (Cherokee)
  • Cherokees ally of U.S.
  • Fought at Battle of Horseshoe Bend
  • Lake Junaluska in Haywood County named after him
dolly madison
Dolly Madison
  • Wife of President Madison
  • Born in Guilford County
  • When British invaded D.C. Dolly Madison stayed at the White House
  • Rescued papers and other valuables
  • Got out just before British got to White House
  • Heroine of the war
star spangled banner
Star Spangled Banner
  • U.S. national anthem in 1931
  • September of 1812
  • Francis Scott Key watched British ships bombard Fort McHenry in the Chesapeake Bay
  • Saw flag still flying over fort
struggles in the west
Struggles in the West
  • Piedmont and Western regions
  • Small scale farms(owned/rented few dozen acres)
  • Few luxuries and little contact outside of town
  • Self-sufficient
  • Farming, church, relatives
  • Some never left their county before they died
waking up the state
Waking Up the State
  • Some farmers wanted more $$$, more things, higher standard of living
  • Better transportation needed
  • Major problem in new settlement areas
  • Hilly/mountainous, few roads
  • NC does not help with new roads
east nc has the power
East NC has the Power
  • East holds most of the states power
  • Legislature based on # of counties
  • More people lived in Piedmont and the west,
  • East used power to make more counties in east
  • East: wealthy farmers, well educated (private tutors/schools)
  • Crops sent through organized system of trade
rip van winkle state
Rip Van Winkle State
  • NC had low taxes and small government
  • NC called the Rip Van Winkle State (slept for 20 years)
  • Stagnant western economy
  • Lack of investment, education, help
  • Decline socially and economically
ambitious reforms
Ambitious Reforms
  • 1815: Archibald Debow Murphey (young Senator) pushes for change
  • New roads + waterways
  • Public education: schools in every county
  • Small fee to those who could pay, free for the rest
  • Plan fell on deaf ears
  • Rest of U.S. moved forward NC lagged behind
reformers push harder
Reformers Push Harder
  • 1830’s: NC starts to lose pop. And people want change
  • People move to Tennessee and beyond
  • 1824: Andrew Jackson wins popular vote but lost Electoral College (people felt denied rights)
  • 1828: Andrew Jackson elected President
  • Supported “common man”, farmer
  • Started Democratic Party: inspired ordinary people to push for political rights
a new constitution
A New Constitution
  • 1835: Governor Swain pushes for new constitution
  • Spread power throughout the state
  • Constitution of 1835 gives western counties more seats in legislature
  • Did not have to own land to vote
  • Voters choose the Governor
  • Catholics could hold state office
  • New energy in state
  • New political party= The Whigs (popular in west NC)
  • NC invests in roads, railroads, schools
more improvements
More Improvements
  • 1840’s Plank roads
  • Railroads
  • 1st U.S. steam-powered railroads in 1830’s
  • Wilmington to Weldon; Raleigh to Gaston
  • Connected with railroads in VA
  • Dominant form of transport of people and goods
piedmont
Piedmont
  • Produce more goods and better soil to farm
  • Business, factories grow
public schools
Public Schools
  • Common schools given $$ from state
  • Colleges + universities spread
nc gold rush
NC GOLD RUSH!!!
  • 1824-1850’s: Gold major industry in NC
  • 1st found in 1700’s, 1st ever found in U.S.
  • 1824: Rowan County
  • Companies hire European immigrants to dig mines
  • U.S. Mint built in Charlotte (make national coins)
  • 1850’s Gold rush comes to an end
  • 1849: California gold rush leads people west
  • Look beyond farming for economic ideas
westward expansion
Westward Expansion
  • Nation expands
  • Louisiana Purchase by Thomas Jefferson (1850 most of modern day U.S. acquired)
  • Land gained through war and diplomacy
  • War of 1812: Gain parts of Alabama + Mississippi
  • 1817-1824: Florida and part of Oregon from Spanish and British
  • 1830: Indian Removal Act: moved Indians off their southern land
indian removal act in nc
Indian Removal Act in NC
  • 1830: most Indians did not live on tribal lands
  • Considered “free persons of color”
  • Cherokee lived on their traditional land
the indian removal act
The Indian Removal Act
  • Southern Indians in 5 major groups: Creeks (Alabama), Seminoles (Florida), Choctaws + Chicasaws (Mississippi) and Cherokee (Georgia, NC, Tennessee)
  • Move Indians to Oklahoma by President Jackson
  • Persuaded or bribed leaders
  • Troops move Indians
  • Seminoles fought so hard U.S. left them alone (the longest war in U.S. history)
north carolina cherokee fight to stay
North Carolina Cherokee Fight to Stay
  • Cherokee in NC hide (led by Yonaguska)
  • NC didn’t care if Cherokee left but in Georgia they did
  • Sue U.S. government, 1,000 Cherokee win the right to stay in the state
  • Lived outside tribal lands, bought land on their own
the trail of tears
The Trail of Tears
  • National tragedy
  • 1838: 17,000 Cherokees and 2,000 slaves headed to Oklahoma from AL, TN, NC, GA
  • Journey took several months
  • Walked every bit of the way
  • 7,000 troops to guard them
  • Did not enough provide food, shelter, medical care
  • 4,000 die on the way
manifest destiny
Manifest Destiny
  • People felt they were apart of a special nation
  • Mandate from God to spread across the continent, from sea to shining sea
  • President James Polk
  • Texas separates from Mexico, becomes of Republic of Texas, then becomes part of U.S.
  • Polk sent troops to protect U.S.-Mexico border
  • Soldiers clash Mexican-American War starts
mexican american war
Mexican-American War
  • U.S. troops invade Mexico
  • Capture Mexico City
  • Mexico gives up all northern territories from Texas to California
  • Many generals from the Civil War gain experience in the war
sectional tensions increase
Sectional Tensions Increase
  • Western expansion gives settlers new opportunities
  • Tension between north and south
  • 1820’s: all northern states abolish slavery
  • Congress not sure if new territories should have slavery or not
abolition
Abolition
  • Abolitionists= people who fought to end slavery
  • Many were southerners ex. Levi Coffin
  • Coffin: Quaker from Guilford County
  • Helped hundreds of slaves escape
  • UNDERGROUND RAILROAD: network of abolitionists who helped slaves escape
  • Published autobiographies of many former slaves: Frederick Douglas, Harriet Jacobs
unrest in north carolina
Unrest in North Carolina
  • Slaves talk more and more on freedom
  • David Walker (free black man) spreads anti-slavery ideasacross the south
  • Pamphlets, speeches, news articles
fear of slave revolt
Fear of Slave Revolt
  • NC slave owners feared slave revolt
  • 1802, 21 Slaves were hanged for plotting revolt
  • Charleston, SC: white residents found out about well-organized plot to take over city
  • Group of escaped slaves raided towns in late 1820’s in NC
  • Harsh penalties for those who help slaves (read and write)—”source of great evil”
revolt
REVOLT!!!
  • 1831:Nat Turner (slave preacher) led slaves in raids on plantations on NC, VA border (55 whites killed in one night)
  • Panic
  • Militia formed, black church burnt, many jailed
  • Turner executed
  • Many free black families leave NC and go North
uncle tom s cabin
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
  • Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
economic divide
Economic Divide
  • Is slavery moral?
  • North and South very different economically
  • South: Plantations (slave labor)
  • North: Trade and Manufacturing
  • Different interests and voted differently in Congress
plantation vs industry
Plantation vs Industry
  • South driven by cotton, land, slaves(Agricultural)-little reason to invest in anything else
  • North land was rocky, colder climate
  • Trade, shipping, investing (roads, railroads), factories (manufacturing)
  • Factory owners invested in other factories (clothes, chemicals, trains)
the nullification crisis
The Nullification Crisis
  • Tariffs (taxes on imported goods) helped Northern factories
  • Hurt the south, had to pay more for goods
  • Tariffs sparked a disagreement called the Nullification Crisis
  • NULLIFY= To void or cancel
  • Issue: Does the federal government have the power to tell a state what to do?
  • State’s right to refuse to enforce federal law
nullification crisis
Nullification Crisis
  • SC led this debate, threatened to SECEDE (to leave) the Union (U.S.)
  • No other state supported SC, backed down
  • New states threatened to upset balance of the U.S.
  • South wanted plantations in the west (need of new land due to soil exhaustion)
  • Plantations=slaves, support southern ideas
  • North worried that states with slavery would support southern power in national affairs
compromises
Compromises
  • Missouri Compromise (1820): states below Missouri border would allow slavery, above the line would be free (minus Missouri)
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854):People of Kansas and Nebraska could vote on if their state would allow slavery
  • Impossible to slave until confrontation
violence erupts
Violence Erupts
  • 1850’s tension engulfs nation
  • Bleeding Kansas
  • Congressman Brooks (SC) beats up Senator Sumner (MA)
  • 1859: John Brown (Kansas Preacher)launched raid on Harper’s Ferry (VA)
  • Plan: take guns, give them to slaves, start revolution
  • Federal troops retake arsenal
  • John Brown and followers killed at HF or hanged
the election of 1860
The Election of 1860
  • Key issue: Slavery in western territories
  • Anti-expansionists form the Republican Party
  • Nominated Abraham Lincoln (IL)
  • No one in NC voted for Lincoln as his name was not on ballot
  • Lincoln won every free state, became President
secession begins
Secession Begins
  • Expanded slavery mattered most to plantation owners
  • NC mostly small farmers
  • Many willing to stand up for their state, many didn’t think slavery could cause a drastic action
  • Dec. 20th 1860: SC secedes from the Union
essential questions
Essential Questions
  • How did the invention of the cotton gin affect slavery?
  • What freedoms did enslaved people have or not have?
  • List the causes of the War of 1812?
  • What did it mean that North Carolina was called the “Rip Van Winkle” state?
  • Describe one effect of the NC gold rush on the state?
  • Which Indian tribes resisted the Indian Removal Act?
  • Why did the state write a new constitution in 1835?
  • Explain 2 factors that divided the South from the North?
  • What event caused South Carolina to quickly secede?
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