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SIGGRAPH 97. Rendering With Coherent Layers. Jed Lengyel John Snyder Microsoft Research. Traditional Pipeline. Renders 3D scene to an image. Traditional Pipeline. Traditional Pipeline. Problems Does not exploit temporal coherence Spatial and temporal resolutions are global

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rendering with coherent layers

SIGGRAPH 97

Rendering With Coherent Layers

Jed Lengyel John Snyder

Microsoft Research

traditional pipeline
Traditional Pipeline
  • Renders 3D scene to an image.
traditional pipeline4
Traditional Pipeline
  • Problems
    • Does not exploit temporal coherence
    • Spatial and temporal resolutions are global
    • Limited integration of 2D elements in 3D
traditional pipeline6
Traditional Pipeline
  • How can we improve this?
layered pipeline
Layered Pipeline
  • Add a 2D image warp.
layered pipeline8
Layered Pipeline
  • A sprite is a warped image with alpha.

Sprite

layered pipeline9
Layered Pipeline
  • Each layer produces a sprite.

Layer

layered pipeline10
Layered Pipeline
  • The scene is factored into layers.
previous work
Previous Work
  • Image-caching [Shade96, Schaufler96]
  • Composition architectures (with z per pixel) [Duff85, Molnar92, Regan94, Mark97]
  • Image-based rendering [Chen93, Chen95, McMillan95]
  • Regulation [Funkhouser93, Maciel95]
  • Shading factorization [Cook84, Hanrahan90, Segal92, Dorsey95, Guenter95, Meier96]
2d image transform
2D Image Transform
  • T is 3D transform to screen coordinates.
2d image transform15
2D Image Transform
  • Extra degrees of freedom
2d image transform16
2D Image Transform
  • Composition maps to same screen point.
2d image transform17
2D Image Transform
  • Spatial resolution
2d image transform18
2D Image Transform
  • Temporal resolution
depth sorting of layers
Depth Sorting of Layers
  • Depth sorting in software is effective.
    • Relatively small number of primitives
    • Exploits temporal coherence
warp choice
Warp Choice
  • Accuracy of image interpolation through time
  • Efficient hardware implementation
  • Ease of computing the warp parameters
characteristic points
Characteristic Points
  • Track 3D motion projected to 2D
warp calculation
Warp Calculation
  • Characteristic points are matched
warps considered
Warps Considered
  • Pure translation
  • Translation with isotropic scale
  • Translation with independent scale in x and y
  • Affine
  • Perspective
image interpolation
Image Interpolation
  • Warping intermediate images is effective
    • Triple- or quadruple-framing
    • Warp calculated with a small set of points
    • Decouples 3D rendering from display
regulation
Regulation
  • Set independent layer quality parameters
regulator
Regulator
  • Maximize fidelity, balance resources
fiducials
Fiducials
  • Measure fidelity of approximation
    • Geometric
    • Photometric
    • Sampling
    • Visibility
geometric fiducial
Geometric Fiducial
  • Compares warped and current points
photometric fiducial
Photometric Fiducial
  • Samples lighting at characteristic points
photometric fiducial 2
Photometric Fiducial 2
  • Measures change in light position
sampling fiducial
Sampling Fiducial
  • Measures distortion of image samples
visibility fiducial
Visibility Fiducial
  • Counts back-to-front transitions

Frame 0

Frame 1

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Layers are good for real-time 3D.
    • Effective using affine image warp
    • Exploit temporal coherence
    • Factor shading
    • Allow precise targeting of resources
    • 3x-10x improvement