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Biologically Derived Airborne Contaminants: Bioaerosols and TLVs ®. Kenneth F. Martinez, MSEE, CIH Chair, ACGIH ® Bioaerosols Committee NIOSH. Where ?. Microorganisms. Obligate parasites (must have a living host) viruses bacteria rickettsia

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biologically derived airborne contaminants bioaerosols and tlvs

Biologically Derived Airborne Contaminants: Bioaerosols and TLVs®

Kenneth F. Martinez, MSEE, CIH

Chair, ACGIH® Bioaerosols Committee

NIOSH

microorganisms
Microorganisms
  • Obligate parasites (must have a living host)
    • viruses
    • bacteria
    • rickettsia
  • Facultative saprophytes (will utilize dead organic material)
    • fungi
    • bacteria
microbiological concerns
Microbiological Concerns
  • Infections
  • Immunologic Reactions
  • Toxic Effects
infectious disease
Infectious Disease
  • Pathogenicity
  • Virulence
  • Relationship between virulence (V), numbers of pathogens or dosage (D), and resistant state of the host (RS)
  • Colonization
  • Invasiveness

V * D

Infectious Disease =

RS

infectious disease terminology
Infectious DiseaseTerminology
  • Portal of entry
  • Exposure vs. infection
  • Clinical vs. subclinical or asymptomatic infection
  • Carrier state
  • Opportunistic infection
  • Human pathogen vs. virulence
  • Immunosuppression
infectious disease pathways
Infectious DiseasePathways
  • Respiratory
  • Oral (via ingestion)
  • Contact
  • Penetration
  • Vectors (via insect bite)
allergic disease
Allergic Disease
  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Allergic asthma
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
  • Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis)
u s disease prevalence
U.S. Disease Prevalence
  • 1 of 5 Americans suffer from allergic disease
  • Indoor allergens responsible for significant share
  • Environmental control reduces disease severity

Source: NHLBI, 1991

slide13

Allergen Exposure

Dust Mites Molds

Animal Dander Pollen

Allergenic Chemicals

Genetic

Predisposition

or Susceptibility

Allergic Disease

Immunologic

Sensitization

Mild

Moderate

Severe

(Death)

Other Exposures

Viruses

Air Pollution

Tobacco Smoke

Source: Pope AM, et al., eds., 1993

classification of occupant complaints
Classification of Occupant Complaints
  • Sick Building Syndrome
  • Building-Related Disease
  • Occupant Discomfort
sick building syndrome non specific symptoms
Sick Building SyndromeNon-specific Symptoms
  • Headache
  • Eye, nose, throat irritation
  • Sneezing
  • Fatigue and lethargy
  • Skin irritation
  • Dizziness and nausea
  • Cough
  • Chest tightness
building related disease

Legionnaires Disease

Pontiac Fever

Humidifier Fever

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Anthrax

Building-Related Disease
  • Known etiologies
  • Related to identifiable exposure
slide19

No numeric criteria

for interpreting

environmental measurements!

why not scientifically supportable
Why Not Scientifically Supportable?

TotalCulturable or Countable Bioaerosols

  • Not a single entity
  • Human responses cover wide range
  • No single sampling method exists
  • No exposure/response relationships exist
why not scientifically supportable1
Why Not Scientifically Supportable?

Specific Culturable or Countable Bioaerosols

- other than infectious

  • Data are derived from indicators rather than actual effector agents
  • Concentrations vary widely
  • Low statistical power in cause-effect relationship studies
why not scientifically supportable2
Why Not Scientifically Supportable?

Infectious Culturable or Countable Bioaerosols

  • Dose-response data limited to a few agents
  • Air sampling limited to research
  • Administrative and engineering controls remain the primary defenses
why not scientifically supportable3
Why Not Scientifically Supportable?

Assayable biological contaminants

  • Some dose-response relationship data available
    • Experimental studies
    • Epidemiologic surveys
  • Assay methods improving
  • May be appropriate in the future
questions
Questions?
  • Pat Breysse
  • Lisa Brosseau
  • Larry Lowry
  • Tom Bernard
  • Ken Martinez