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  2. Issues • The overuse of antibiotics is leading to germs (bacteria) that are drug resistant. • Antibiotic resistance is a form of drug resistance whereby some (or, less commonly, all) sub-populations of a microorganism, usually a bacterial species, are able to survive after exposure to one or more antibiotics; pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics are considered multidrug resistant (MDR) or, more colloquially, superbugs. Microbes, rather than people, develop resistance to antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is a serious and growing phenomenon in contemporary medicine and has emerged as one of the pre-eminent public health concerns of the 21st century.

  3. Your bacterial enemies Resistant pathogens • 1 Staphylococcus aureus • 2 Streptococcus and Enterococcus • 3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa • 4 Clostridium difficile • 5 Salmonella and E. coli • 6 Acinetobacterbaumannii • 7 Klebsiellapneumonia • 8 Mycobacterium tuberculosis • 9 Neisseria gonorrhoea

  4. Introducing - The Superbugs

  5. Doctors Warn of New Stomach ‘Superbug’ Hitting U.S. By Richard Besser @DrRichardBesser Find on FacebookFollow on Twitter Jan 26, 2013 6:00am ht norovirus ll 130125 wblog Doctors Warn of New Stomach Superbug Hitting U.S. A new strain of norovirus that wreaks havoc on people’s stomachs is so vicious that it’s being called a “superbug” by doctors.

  6. Good News? Uh … No! ‘Superbug found in Melbourne hospital’

  7. Foreign Germs Health Threat - ‘Herald Sun’ – 03/02/2014 Please read the article you’ve been given. Answer on the sheet you’ve been given (in the spaces provided), and make sure your name is on the sheet. 1: ‘Who’ is the enemy? (Second Paragraph) 2: What factor makes the spread of superbugs ‘easier’? 3: What’s ‘special’ about GNB/MDR? 4: Explain the measures to control the infection of a man infected with GNB/MDR in Greece, and then repatriated to Melbourne. 5: How long did his treatment take? 6: What is the ‘fatality rate’ associated with these infections? 7: Explain the term ‘endemic’.

  8. Superbugs in Sea-food. •

  9. Antibiotics resistance 'more important than terrorism' • By Jayne Margetts MRSA is a drug-resistant superbug which can cause deadly infections. (FabrizioBensch, file photo: Reuters) • Related Story: Chinese antibiotic use 'threatening Australian food safety' • Related Story: India's 'untreatable' tuberculosis alarms experts • An Australian infectious diseases expert agrees with Britain's top health official that resistance to antibiotics is as great a risk to public safety as terrorism.

  10. Vancomycin – ‘hero drug’ • Vancomycinis an antibiotic used in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. • Vancomycinwas first isolated in 1953 at Eli Lilly, from a soil sample collected from the interior jungles of Borneo by a missionary. • The compound was industrially produced by fermentation and given the generic name Vancomycin, derived from the term "vanquish." The original indication for Vancomycinwas for the treatment of penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. • For many years since its initial use, Vancomycinhad traditionally been reserved as a drug of "last resort“.

  11. Issues • ‘Climate change’ – the world’s climatic patterns are changing. • A debate? NOT really! THINK about why?? [Think what the tobacco industry’s ‘tactics’ were in term’s of clouding the smoking debate.]

  12. It's not clear precisely when the polar ice caps will melt completely. But if and when they do, sea levels will rise by 216 feet.

  13. Rich and poor countries The question of ‘foreign aid’ Questions – Should ‘first world’ countries help the ‘third world’ countries? (Explain ‘first’, ‘second’ and ‘third’ world terms. Replaced by ‘Developed Countries’ [DC], UDC and Developing Countries.

  14. The question of ‘aid’ • How much aid money should be given? • For example – “In 2012-13, Australia’s assistance to Indonesia was worth an estimated $541.6 million, making it our largest bilateral aid program.” (takenfrom: • This is more than we gave to Papua New Guinea (PNG) - $500mil – in the same year.

  15. Jakarta has demanded an immediate halt to asylum-seeker boat turnbacks and announced it will send a navy frigate to bolster its southern defences after Australian ships repeatedly breached Indonesian territorial waters. • In a dramatic escalation of the standoff over border protection, Indonesia drew a line in the sand on Friday, saying it would step up its own maritime patrols in a move that could heighten the risk of confrontation. • ''The government of Indonesia has the right to protect its sovereignty and territorial integrity in accordance with international laws and the charter of the United Nations,'' said AgusBarnas, the spokesman for the Co-ordinating Ministry of Political, Legal and Security Affairs. • Read more: (Source: The Age 18/01/2014)

  16. The question of ‘aid’. • How long should we gone on giving?

  17. -Third World Debt- • The debt of developing countries refers to the external debt incurred by governments of developing countries, generally in quantities beyond the governments' ability to repay. "Unpayable debt" is external debt with interest that exceeds what the country's politicians think they can collect from taxpayers, based on the nation's gross domestic product, thus preventing the debt from ever being repaid. The causes of debt are a result of many factors. • Some of the current levels of debt were amassed following the 1973 oil crisis. Increases in oil prices forced many poorer nations' governments to borrow heavily to purchase politically essential supplies. At the same time, OPEC funds deposited in western banks provided a ready source of funds for loans. While a proportion of borrowed funds went towards infrastructure and economic development financed by central governments, a proportion was lost to corruption and about one-fifth was spent on arms.

  18. Issues • Disparity between the richest and poorest people in the world • Reference – ‘Oxfam’ (NGO) – a leading UK charity fighting global poverty.

  19. Guess what. • The wealth of the one (1) per cent richest people in the world is worth about $110 trillion (a million million (1,000,000,000,000 times 110 – or, if you like, a thousand billion times 110), which is 65 times the total wealth of the bottom half of the world’s population.

  20. Just so you have some real idea. • For the purposes of demonstration - this is a US $100 note.

  21. A packet of one hundred $100 notes is less than 1.27cms thick and contains $10,000. Fits in your pocket easily and is more than enough for week or two of mega/super/ultra fun.

  22. Believe it or not, this next little pile is $1 million dollars (100 packets of $10,000). You could stuff that into a grocery bag and walk around with it.

  23. Ameasly $1 million looked a little unimpressive, but $100 million is a little more respectable. It fits neatly on a standard pallet...

  24. $1 BILLION dollars... now we're really getting somewhere...

  25. This is just one (1) trillion dollars. A 1, followed by 12 zeroes.

  26. Don’t be confused. • In British English, a billion used to be equivalent to a million million (i.e. 1,000,000,000,000), while in American English it has always equated to a thousand million (i.e. 1,000,000,000). British English has now adopted the American figure, though, so that a billion equals a thousand million in both varieties of English. • The same sort of change has taken place with the meaning of trillion. In British English, a trillion used to mean a million millionmillion (i.e. 1,000,000,000,000,000,000). Nowadays, it's generally held to be equivalent to a million million (1,000,000,000,000), as it is in American English.

  27. Next. • The richest 85 people in the world control about $1.7 trillion in wealth, which is equivalent to the bottom half of the world’s population. • Oxfam also argues that this is no accident either, saying growing inequality has been driven by a "power grab" by wealthy elites, who have co-opted the political process to rig the rules of the economic system in their favour. (

  28. -Enmeshed money- • Issues • The ‘globalised’ economies

  29. -Too many people- • Issues • ‘Over-population’

  30. Crossing Borders

  31. Division by Religion


  33. Genocide is "the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group.

  34. The International Criminal Court says ‘genocide’ is……….. any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. — Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Article II