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Glycolysis & Fermentation. Chapter 6. What is ATP? . Analogy with the coins and the bending machine How does it function like a rechargeable battery? . RECHARGING ATP. Occurs in the Mitochondria How do we obtain the energy from GLUCOSE to make ATP? 2 types of complex reactions

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what is atp
What is ATP?
  • Analogy with the coins and the bending machine
  • How does it function like a rechargeable battery?
recharging atp
RECHARGING ATP
  • Occurs in the Mitochondria
  • How do we obtain the energy from GLUCOSE to make ATP?
  • 2 types of complex reactions

→Aerobic (Involves oxygen)

→Anaerobic (Does not involve oxygen)

glycolysis
GLYCOLYSIS
  • Breakdown of glucose
  • Happens in the cytoplasm of the cell
  • Doesn’t require oxygen
  • Process of going from Glucose to Pyruvic Acid and producing 2 ATP

Glucose → Pyruvic Acid + 2 ATP

glycolysis2
GLYCOLYSIS

Glucose → Pyruvic Acid + 2 ATP

AEROBIC PATHWAY

ANAEROBIC PATHWAY

CELLULAR RESPIRATION

FERMENTATION

fermentation anaerobic
FERMENTATION : ANAEROBIC
  • No oxygen present
  • Process through which yeast cells obtain energy from glucose
  • Limited to microscopic organisms, unicellular organisms
  • Glucose breaks down into 2 three-carbon molecules called pyruvate
  • Pyruvate can then be broken down in two different pathways (identified by their waste products)

→Alcoholic Fermentation

→Lactic Acid Fermentation

slide8
ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

Glucose Energy Ethanol Carbon

Dioxide

C6H12O6→ 2 ATP + 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2

alcoholic fermentation
ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

6 Carbon Molecule

3 Carbon → Molecule

2 Carbon → Molecule

slide10
FERMENTATION
  • Goal of fermentation: Produce ATP
  • What are the waste products in alcoholic fermentation? _________
  • How is the waste product of one organism useful to another?
slide11
ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION
  • Example 1 : Wine (yeast ferments the sugar in grape juice to make ethanol & CO2)
  • Example 2 : Yeast is used to make bread, the CO2 is what forms bubbles in the dough making it rise
slide12
LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION
  • Fermentation can also be carried out by bacteria
  • Lactic acid fermentation is a process in which bacteria converts glucose to lactic acid
  • Example 1: Make products such as butter, yogurt and cheese.
  • Example 2: Lactic acid buildup in muscles

C6H12O6→ 2 Lactic Acid + 2ATP

cellular respiration
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
  • Oxygen is essential to human life
  • Fermentation is inefficient
  • Glucose is broken down to produce ATP with the help of oxygen = AEROBIC
  • Breathing provides oxygen to the cells that use it to break down Glucose and make ATP
where does cellular respiration take place
WHERE DOES CELLULAR RESPIRATION TAKE PLACE?

_________________

(Responsible for energy generation)

Enzymes responsible for controlling cellular respiration are part of the inner membrane

cellular respiration1
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
  • Analogy with a fireplace
    • Mitochondria = Fireplace
    • Glucose = Log
    • Oxygen = Needed to burn log
    • Carbon Dioxide & Water = Released
    • ATP = Released as heat & light
cellular respiration2
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
  • Breaks down glucose to put energy in the form of ATP
  • Respiration: breaking down 1 glucose molecules produces 38 ATP molecules
  • How many released in fermentation? ___
  • We recover 40% of energy of the glucose as ATP the rest is released as heat.
cellular respiration3
CELLULAR RESPIRATION

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + 38 ATP + HEAT

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