Glycolysis & Fermentation. Chapter 6. What is ATP? . Analogy with the coins and the bending machine How does it function like a rechargeable battery? . RECHARGING ATP. Occurs in the Mitochondria How do we obtain the energy from GLUCOSE to make ATP? 2 types of complex reactions
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Glycolysis & Fermentation Chapter 6
What is ATP? • Analogy with the coins and the bending machine • How does it function like a rechargeable battery?
RECHARGING ATP • Occurs in the Mitochondria • How do we obtain the energy from GLUCOSE to make ATP? • 2 types of complex reactions →Aerobic (Involves oxygen) →Anaerobic (Does not involve oxygen)
GLYCOLYSIS • Breakdown of glucose • Happens in the cytoplasm of the cell • Doesn’t require oxygen • Process of going from Glucose to Pyruvic Acid and producing 2 ATP Glucose → Pyruvic Acid + 2 ATP
GLYCOLYSIS Glucose → Pyruvic Acid + 2 ATP AEROBIC PATHWAY ANAEROBIC PATHWAY CELLULAR RESPIRATION FERMENTATION
FERMENTATION : ANAEROBIC • No oxygen present • Process through which yeast cells obtain energy from glucose • Limited to microscopic organisms, unicellular organisms • Glucose breaks down into 2 three-carbon molecules called pyruvate • Pyruvate can then be broken down in two different pathways (identified by their waste products) →Alcoholic Fermentation →Lactic Acid Fermentation
ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION Glucose Energy Ethanol Carbon Dioxide C6H12O6→ 2 ATP + 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2
ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION 6 Carbon Molecule 3 Carbon → Molecule 2 Carbon → Molecule
FERMENTATION • Goal of fermentation: Produce ATP • What are the waste products in alcoholic fermentation? _________ • How is the waste product of one organism useful to another?
ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION • Example 1 : Wine (yeast ferments the sugar in grape juice to make ethanol & CO2) • Example 2 : Yeast is used to make bread, the CO2 is what forms bubbles in the dough making it rise
LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION • Fermentation can also be carried out by bacteria • Lactic acid fermentation is a process in which bacteria converts glucose to lactic acid • Example 1: Make products such as butter, yogurt and cheese. • Example 2: Lactic acid buildup in muscles C6H12O6→ 2 Lactic Acid + 2ATP
CELLULAR RESPIRATION • Oxygen is essential to human life • Fermentation is inefficient • Glucose is broken down to produce ATP with the help of oxygen = AEROBIC • Breathing provides oxygen to the cells that use it to break down Glucose and make ATP
WHERE DOES CELLULAR RESPIRATION TAKE PLACE? _________________ (Responsible for energy generation) Enzymes responsible for controlling cellular respiration are part of the inner membrane
CELLULAR RESPIRATION • Analogy with a fireplace • Mitochondria = Fireplace • Glucose = Log • Oxygen = Needed to burn log • Carbon Dioxide & Water = Released • ATP = Released as heat & light
CELLULAR RESPIRATION • Breaks down glucose to put energy in the form of ATP • Respiration: breaking down 1 glucose molecules produces 38 ATP molecules • How many released in fermentation? ___ • We recover 40% of energy of the glucose as ATP the rest is released as heat.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + 38 ATP + HEAT