Typical Neuron Typical Neuron with Glial Cells (supportive cells)
2 Main Nervous Systems • Central Nervous System (CNS) • Includes only the brain and spinal cord • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • Cranial Nerves-12 pairs (sensory, motor or both) • Spinal Nerves-31 pairs (sensory and motor) • Sensory nerves- eyes, nose, skin, ears, and tongue • Motor nerves- allows movement • Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)-involuntary • Sympathetic Nervous System- speeds reactions • Parasympathetic Nervous System- slows reactions -Somatic Nervous System (SNS)- Voluntary
The 3 Main Regions of the Brain: 1. Cerebrum- state of consciousness External parts • Frontal lobe or cortex: Emotional control and personality development • Temporal: Sensory input, language, and memory • Parietal: Sensation, perception, integrating sensory input mostly with visuals • Occipital: Visual perception (color, visual spatial processing, and discriminating movement) • More Information: http://www.neuroskills.com/
Central Sulcus (groove) Lateral Fissure (deep)
Cerebrum: Cerebral Cortex • Gray matter- is the outer layer of the brain that is darker and made up of cell bodies • Motor areas • Sensory areas • Association areas- responsible for thought, learning, judgment, personality, memories and connects sensory and motor areas • White matter- is the lighter inner layer of the brain that is made up of many axons • Responsible for connecting areas within the same hemisphere together
Internal parts of the Cerebrum: • Thalamus- sensory relay influences mood and movement • Hippocampus- short term and long term memory; spatial navigation • Corpus Callosum- connects the right and left brains together
More internal parts of the Cerebrum • Amygdala- Initial emotional center for immediate reaction • Hypothalamus-Maintains homeostasis and regulates hormones
Internal parts of the Cerebrum: • Pineal Body- associated with hormones and navigation (inhibits cancer) • Pituitary Gland associated with hormones for growth Pituitary Gland
The Main Regions of the Brain: 2. Cerebellum • Cerebellum- (Right and Left sides) involved in the coordination of voluntary motor movement, balance equilibrium and muscle tone
3. Brain Stem • Brain Stem- cranial nerves and spinal nerves found here, controls involuntary functions: heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure etc. • Pons • Medulla Oblongata • Midbrain http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=snO68aJTOpM
Try using your brain: Stroop TEST • Dr. John Ridley Stroop 1935 • Directed attention: you have to manage your attention, inhibit or stop one response in order to say or do something else. • More Information: http://www.snre.umich.edu/eplab/demos/st0/stroopdesc.html
Tongue twisters Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked.If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,Where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?
Try this! Something in a thirty-acre thermal thicket of thorns and thistles thumped and thundered threatening the three-D thoughts of Matthew the thug - although, theatrically, it was only the thirteen-thousand thistles and thorns through the underneath of his thigh that the thirty year old thug thought of that morning. by Meaghan Desbiens Say: Unique New York five times@!
Brain Disorders: Where is the brain triggered? STROKES: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M_fo6ytlmD0&NR=1 http://www.brainsource.com/brain%20injury.htm
Sensory Organs • Eyes • Ears • Nose • Tongue • Skin