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About the Midterm. Grades are posted Class average = 89 Overall GREAT JOB! Thanks for feedback. OBgyn Week 7. Normal Pregnancy. Conception. Traditionally, involves a fertile woman and a fertile man.

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about the midterm
About the Midterm
  • Grades are posted
  • Class average = 89
  • Overall GREAT JOB!
  • Thanks for feedback
obgyn week 7

OBgyn Week 7

Normal Pregnancy

  • Traditionally, involves a fertile woman and a fertile man.

(These days can involve egg donors, sperm donors, surrogates, fertility hormones, artificial implantation, and other techniques which will not be covered in this lecture)

  • Possible during fertile window of woman’s cycle (around ovulation)
  • Sperm must travel through cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes to reach and fertilize egg
  • Sperm undergo enzymatic reactions (while traveling through cervical mucus and fallopian tubes) to help penetrate the protective layers around the ovum
  • Sperm chemically attracted to ovum
    • Progesterone
    • Follicular fluid from ovum
  • Fertilization occurs in Fallopian tube, zygote (fertilized egg) continues to divide as it travels to uterus and implants
  • Takes 3-4 days for embryo to reach uterus
  • Implantation generally occurs ~3-4 days after embryo enters the uterus
fertile days of cycle
Fertile Days of Cycle

Factors to consider:

  • Ovulation occurs ~day 14 (anytime of day)
  • Ovum can survive up to 24 hours after ovulation
  • Sperm can survive in the vagina up to 48 hours after ejaculation
  • So fertile window is ~days 11-16 of cycle

(if trying to conceive, these are best days; expand to ~days 8-19 if trying NOT to conceive)

    • strict day correlation depends on cycle regularity
    • remember - follicular phase can vary in length
fertility symptoms
Fertility Symptoms
  • Charting of menses
    • Helps determine fertile days, esp if regular cycles
  • Cervical mucus
    • Will be thicker, stretchy when most fertile
  • Cervical position and feel
    • Cervix softens, moves further from introitus when fertile
  • Basal body temp
    • Increases just after ovulation
  • Hormone levels
    • LH surges prior to ovulation (must draw blood to test)
  • Salivary crystallization
    • At-home test kits available
  • Most commonly twins or triplets
  • May arise from:
    • Release and fertilization of multiple ova

(fraternal twins)

    • Division of zygote into two embryos

(identical twins)

Division during stage when cells are totipotent

    • Combination of these
    • Identical triplets or quadruplets also possible
  • High risk of pre-term delivery, low birth weight
early pregnancy sx
Early Pregnancy Sx

All of these are due to hormone level changes:

  • Nausea / vomiting (esp in AM)
      • Commonly lasts until ~week 12-15, when placenta takes over roll of hormone production from corpus luteum
  • Swollen / tender breasts
  • Mood changes / irritability
  • Fatigue
  • Leucorrhea: white, thicker vaginal discharge
  • Lack of menstrual period
      • Will have been pregnant ~2 weeks by this point
      • May have light spotting lasting ~1 day (more may be sign of spontaneous abortion or of ectopic pregnancy)
abnormal sx
Abnormal Sx

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy or spontaneous abortion may include:


Severe abdominal pain


Spotting > 1 days

Fainting or Dizziness

pregnancy diagnosis
Pregnancy Diagnosis
  • Urine b-HCG - accurate at time of missed period (home test kits available OTC)
  • Serum b-HCG - quantitative tests most sensitive
  • Ultrasound (abdominal)
    • 5-6 weeks can see gestational sac
    • 8 weeks can see heart beat to assess viability

Vaginal Ultrasound can determine heart beat, gestational sac at 5 weeks

later signs of pregnancy
Later Signs of Pregnancy
  • Softening and bluing of cervix
  • Enlargement of uterus (may be palpated by 15 wks)
  • Fetal heart tones (Doppler or fetascope)
    • 120-160bpm, so easy to tell apart from mother’s
    • May be detected as early as 10 wks
    • Lack of FHT by 12-14 weeks is concerning, may be due to:
      • Wrong date determination
      • Non-viable fetus
      • Posterior position of fetus
      • Thick abdominal wall
      • Retroflexed uterus
later signs of pregnancy1
Later Signs of Pregnancy
  • Quickening: first fetal mvmt felt by the mother
    • Primiparous: 18-20 weeks
    • Multiparous: 16-19 weeks
  • Braxton Hicks contractions: localized uterine contractions that may start at 20 weeks; very irregular and variable
  • At 20 weeks, ballotment: moveable baby
length of pregnancy
Length of Pregnancy
  • Estimated Due Date = 40 weeks (280 days) after first day of last menstrual period
      • Naegle’s rule:

subtract 3 months from LMP, add 7 days, add 1 year

      • Add 266 days from exact day of conception
      • 85% of women deliver around EDD; 10% early, 5% late
  • “Normal” can vary from 37-42 weeks
  • LMP used to estimate gestational age
  • And remember, fertilization usually occurs ~2 weeks after first day of LMP
      • Conception age refers to date of probable conception
      • ~2 weeks less than gestational age
establishing edd
Establishing EDD
  • Difficulties with establishment of Due Date
    • Irregular or abnormal menses
      • Miscarriage
      • Lactation (annovulatory for 6-12 months)
      • Gynecological problems (e.g. polycystic ovaries)
    • Other interfering factors
      • Low dose OCPs
      • Early or late ovulation
      • Poor recording of menstrual history
establishing edd1
Establishing EDD
  • Importance of establishing correct EDD
    • Determine pre or post maturity
      • Important if home birth (safe to deliver weeks 37-42; if premature or postdate, need to refer to hospital)
    • Determine IUGR (Intrauterine growth retardation)
    • Determine multiple pregnancy or abnormal levels of amniotic fluid
    • Determine paternity
    • Gestational age important in considering TAB, amniocentesis, alpha fetal protein
maternal changes
Maternal Changes
  • Weight gain
  • Loosening of joints
  • Hormonal changes
  • Increase in blood volume
  • Enlargement of uterus, crowding of abdominal and pelvic organs
  • Enlargement of breasts
weight gain
Weight Gain
  • Normal weight gain

~30 lbs if healthy weight at start of pregnancy

~9 of these lbs are weight of fetus, placenta, amniotic fluid, uterine hypertrophy, increased blood volume, breast enlargement, maternal intra/extracellular volume

  • Variables to weight gain:
    • Age, parity, income, maternal education, etc.
    • Large weight gain associated with LGA (large for gestational age) babies
      • Contributes to maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, increased risk for CV dz and diabetes later in life
    • Low weight gain associated with SGA babies
      • Greater risk for preterm labor
maternal weight gain
Maternal Weight Gain
  • National Academy of Science recommendations according to BMI
    • 28-40# for underweight women
      • 5# in first trimester; >1# week thereafter
    • 15-35# for women at normal weight
      • 2-4# in first trimester; 1# week thereafter
    • 15-25# for overweight women
      • 2# in first trimester; <1# week thereafter
physiologic changes
Physiologic Changes
  • Cervical changes: effacement and dilation
    • Thick clot of mucus in cervical os: mucous plug
    • Cervix softens and becomes cyanotic (increased vascularity)
    • Change in consistency in cervical mucus
  • Uterine changes:
    • Displaces intestines laterally and superiorly
    • Increases tension on on broad and round ligaments
    • Uterus also undergoes irregular contractions
      • Unpredictable, nonrhythmic, aka Braxton-Hicks
  • Vaginal changes:
    • Softening of tissues
    • Increased cervical mucus
    • Decreased pH (3.5 to 6) (antibacterial function?)
phys changes
Phys Changes
  • Ovaries
    • Ovarian function ceases, maturation of new follicles suspended
    • Corpus luteum produces progesterone (until ~week 12, when placenta takes over this function)
    • Corpus luteum also secretes relaxin hormone
  • Changes in breasts:
    • Increased tenderness in first weeks
    • Increase in size
    • Nipples become enlarged and more deeply pigmented
    • Colostrum secreted pre or post-natally
phys changes1
Phys Changes
  • Musculoskeletal changes
    • Softening of ligaments (esp. sacro-illiac and pubic symphisis) due to relaxin hormone
    • Lumbar lordosis
    • Loosening of all joints
      • Often noticed as increase of foot length / shoe size
  • Skin changes:
    • chloasma (“mask” of pregnancy)
    • linea nigra on abdomen
    • striae
    • increased hair growth, increased perspiration
phys changes cv
Phys Changes - CV
  • Cardiovascular changes
    • Increased cardiac outflow by 30-40%
    • Increase in blood volume by >35%
      • Increase in body mass (enlarged uterus)
      • Facilitates blood flow/ gas exchange to placenta
      • Protects mother against excessive blood loss during labor
      • Greater increase in plasma than erythrocytes
    • Benign ejection systolic heart murmurs
    • Increased pulse rate 10-15bpm

(How would you expect her pulse to feel?)

  • Edema of pregnancy
    • Increased capillary pressure and permeability
    • Fetal pressure in pelvis decreases venous return of lower half of body
more physiologic changes
More Physiologic Changes
  • Increase in cellular respiration for fetus/placenta and mom
  • Shortness of breath dt restriction on diaphragm
  • Kidneys about 1 cm larger during pregnancy
  • Increase in dental caries
  • Decreased secretion of HCL and pepsin
  • Decreased gastric emptying and intestinal motility
  • Increased metabolic rate by 20%
endocrine changes
Endocrine Changes
  • Increased thyroid function (free, active thyroid hormone T3 remains the same)
  • Incrased prolactin, cortisol, aldosterone
  • Decreased GH, FSH, LH
  • Difficulty balancing blood glucose
    • Glucose as energy source favored by fetus
  • Estrogen increases 1000x (ovaries and adrenals)
  • Progesterone increases 10x
estrogen effects
Estrogen Effects
  • Influences growth and fxn of uterus, breasts, labia
  • Increases pliability of CT, joint relaxation
  • Increases adipose tissue (fat stores)
  • Increases skin pigmentation
  • Increases Na+ and volume retention
  • Stimulates 3rd trimester prostaglandin production
  • Associated with mood swings
  • Increases insulin production/ secretion as well as tissue sensitivity to insulin
  • Increases uterine receptivity to progesterone and oxytocin
progesterone effects
Progesterone Effects
  • Produced by corpus luteum, then by placenta
  • Increases the blood supply of endometrium
  • Suppresses maternal immunological response to fetus
  • Inhibits contraction of uterus
  • Relaxes smooth muscle (bladder tone, slows GI motility)
  • Radically decreases at labor onset
more endocrine changes
More Endocrine Changes
  • Prolactin
    • Produced by maternal and fetal pituitary glands, uterus
    • Sustains milk production and regulates milk composition
  • Prostaglandins
    • Produced by mother, fetus, placenta
    • Soften cervix, prime maternal body for labor
  • Oxytocin
    • Produced by hypothalamus, released by pituitary
    • Stimulates uterine contractions, milk let down/ ejection
    • Distension of cervix and vagina stimulates release of oxytocin and prostaglandins during labor
endocrine changes hcg
Endocrine Changes - HCG
  • bHCG (beta human chorionic gonadotrophin)
    • Secreted by fetus starting day 6-8
    • Prevents degeneration of corpus luteum so that E and P continue to be secreted
    • Maximum levels at 7-16 weeks
    • At 8-12 weeks, promotes testosterone synthesis and secretion for male sexual differentiation
    • Used in diagnosis for quantitative pregnancy tests/ ectopic pregnancy
endocrine changes hpl
Endocrine Changes - HPL
  • HPL (human placental lactogen)
    • aka HCS (Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin)
    • Produced by placenta
    • Decreases maternal insulin sensitivity
      • Elevates maternal blood glucose levels with decreased maternal glucose usage = more available for fetus
    • Elevated during hypogycemia to mobilize free fatty acids for energy for maternal metabolism
    • Increases lipolysis
      • Glucose preferentially used as fuel by fetus, maternal energy increasingly comes from fat stores
    • Decreases hunger sensation and diverts maternal CHO metabolism to fat metabolism in 3rd trimester
    • Plateaus in 3rd trimester
  • Pregnancy divided into trimesters, each ~3 months (13-14 weeks)
    • 1st : weeks 0-13
    • 2nd : weeks 14-28
    • 3rd : weeks 29-40
week by week developments
Week-by-Week Developments
  • First Trimester (embryonic development)

*Highly sensitive to teratogens during this stage*

    • Weeks 1 and 2: remember, this is preconception: mother’s body prepares for ovulation, fertilization
    • Wk 3: fertilization occurs, cell division begins
    • Wk 4: CNS begins to develop, angiogenesis, primitive cardiovascular system
    • Wk 5: neurogenesis, brain activity, heart beat

HCG levels detectable via home test kits

    • Wk 6: embryo size of a bean, face developing
    • Wk 7-8: Eyes, hair, all essential organs, movement
    • Wk 8: Embryonic stage over, fetal stage begins
first trimester continued
First trimester continued
  • Wk 9-12: dvpmt of fetal muscle, cartilage, genitals,

Fetal Heart Tones detectable

  • Wk 13: fetus is about the size of a peach
  • Common maternal symptoms:
    • Morning sickness, breast tenderness/swelling, fatigue, weight gain, constipation, heartburn, food cravings, frequent urination
  • Recommendations:
    • Focus on good nutrition: nutrient-dense and fiber-rich foods, avoid refined carbs, eat small, frequent meals
    • Ginger, acupuncture to relieve nausea
    • Gentle exercise to aid circulation, bowel mvmts, fatigue
    • Kegel exercises now to help prevent incontinence later
fetal development 2nd trimester wk 14 28
Fetal development2nd trimester (wk 14-28)

Further organ development and function

Fetus swallows fluid, urinates, sleeps and wakes

  • Week 16: toes, fingers, eyelashes
  • Wk 17: fetus can hear outside noises; mom may start to be visibly pregnant, may feel “quickening”
  • Wk 20: gender identification possible with ultrasound
  • Wk 21: mom SOB, fetus presses against diaphragm
  • Wk 24: Check baby’s position; if born at this time, there is a chance of survival of infant

Lack of lung dvpmt, low body weight are greatest risk factors

  • Wk 25: all organs formed, now mainly growth; risk for pre-eclampsia begins
2nd trimester
2nd trimester
  • Common maternal symptoms:
    • Striae, linea nigra, hemorrhoids and other varicosities, increased allergen sensitivity, swollen feet/ankles, shortness of breath
    • Increased incidence of dental caries (cavities)
  • Recommendations:
    • Continue to focus on good nutrition
    • Rest, nap, put feet up periodically
    • Good oral hygiene especially important
fetal development 3rd trimester wk 29 40
Fetal development3rd trimester (wk 29-40+)

Fetal weight gain ~1 ounce/day

Brain develops rapidly: Maternal nutrition - omega 3s

  • Wk 33: fetus moves downward, head down
  • Wk 34: testes descend (in male fetus)
  • Wk 37: lung surfactant produced
  • Wk 38-40: ready for delivery!
  • Wk 41-42: still within normal, low-risk range

U.S. averages for infants at term birth:

Female wt: 7 lbs, male wt: 7.5 lbs, length: 20”

  • New organ (!) develops for pregnancy only
  • Develops from embryonic cells (outer layer of blastocyst)
  • Allows gas exchange (oxygen, CO2) without mixing of maternal and fetal circulation
  • Also permeable to vitamins, glucose, free fatty acids and electrolytes, and antibodies
placental circulation
Placental Circulation
  • Mother’s circulation connects through uterine wall
  • Fetal circ from placenta via umbilical cord
  • Placental circulation reverse of convention
    • Arteries carry deoxygenated blood
    • Veins carry oxygenated blood
placenta in multiples
Placenta in Multiples
  • Depends on:
    • Dizygotic twins v. monozygotic twins
    • Time at which cleavage of monozygote occurred
      • A= dizygotic twins (two sperm fertilized two eggs)
      • B= monozygotic twins, cleavage of zygote 4-8d post fertilization
      • C= monozygotic twins, cleavage of zygote 8-12d post fert.
nutrition general
Nutrition - general
  • Early fetal development
    • Folate: needed for proper brain and CNS development - must have good levels at very start of pregnancy to prevent defects
    • B12: also needed for proper fetal CNS dvpmt
    • Vitamin A: overdoses can cause defects, so important not to megadose during pregnancy
    • Prenatal vitamins
  • Maintenance of pregnancy
    • Extra calories (~100-300 more/day)
    • Quality fats (including omega 3s), oils, and protein
    • Nutrient-dense, fiber-rich foods
    • Avoid refined carbs and “empty” calories!
  • Do not restrict salt during pregnancy!
      • Electrolytes needed to balance increased blood volume
      • Low sodium diet can lead to elevated BP (drop in blood volume makes kidneys react as if hemorrhage occurred and release renin, which constricts blood vessels)
  • No weight-loss diets during pregnancy!
      • If pt overweight, focus on healthy food choices
  • Protein needs increase (60-100g/day)
      • Increased risk for Pregnancy-induced hypertension with malnutrition, low protein, low calories and low salt
      • Can monitor protein status by checking serum albumin
nutrition minerals
Nutrition - minerals
  • Iron
      • 30mg/day (60-90mg/d if mom anemic)
      • Better taken with vitamin C, away from tannins
  • Calcium
      • 600-1200mg/ day supplemental to dietary intake
      • Increased PTH stimulates calcium release from bones
      • No net bone loss during pregnancy, but bone loss can occur during lactation with inadequate calcium intake
      • Deficiency: muscle spasm, bleeding gums, headache
  • Zinc
      • 15-30mg/day; >30mg may be teratogenic
      • Important for protein synthesis
      • Deficiency associated with: infertility, chronic SAB, PIH, dysfunctional labor, infections
nutrition folate
Nutrition - folate
  • Folic acid

* Start taking before pregnancy*

      • 800-1000mcg/day
      • Needed for DNA synthesis, protein metabolism, neurological development
      • Deficiency assoc with neural tube defects (spina bifida)
      • Deficiency common in vegan diets, smoking, OCP use
      • Should always supplement with Vitamin B12, as it can mask symptoms of B12 deficiency
nutrition vitamins
Nutrition - vitamins
  • B vitamins
      • 25% women in US are deficient in B vitamins
      • 50mg/day B6
      • Helps with nausea/ vomiting
      • B12 deficiency results in CNS defects in baby
      • Esp. important for vegans to supplement B12
  • Vitamin C
      • 500-1000mg/d
      • Megadoses (10g) may cause miscarriage in early weeks
      • May also interfere with pregnancy test results
      • Decreased incidence of SIDS if taken during pregnancy and continued while breast feeding
nutrition vitamins1
Nutrition - vitamins
  • Vitamin A
      • Use beta-carotene in pregnancy as high doses of vit A may be teratogenic (>10,000IU)
      • Be aware of patients using vitamin A as skin treatment (acne, wrinkles)
  • Vitamin D
      • Recent research: deficiencies increase risk for C-section
      • Sunshine is best source
      • Supplement doses determined by serum vitamin D levels
nutrition prenatal vitamins
Nutrition - prenatal vitamins
  • Take before and throughout pregnancy
  • Most necessary vitamins and minerals are included in prenatal formulas
  • May need extra iron if anemic
  • Need omega 3 fatty acids (not included)
  • And, of course, still need a good diet
nutrition multiples
Nutrition - multiples

Nutrition for multiple gestation (twins, etc.)

  • Each fetus requires additional increase in mother’s total blood volume
  • Each fetus requires ~30g protein and 200 calories daily
  • Higher dose prenatal vitamins
  • Frequent meals
maternal malnutrition
Maternal Malnutrition
  • Malnutrition increases risk of:
    • Prolonged, difficult labors
    • Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (part of PIH)
      • Stroke, seizures, death
    • Placental abruption
    • Low birth weight infants
exercise during pregnancy
Exercise During Pregnancy
  • Healthy, fit women can often continue their regular exercise programs
      • Ensure good hydration
      • May fatigue much faster
      • Don’t increase intensity beyond pre-pregnancy levels
  • Yoga and walking are recommended for women who are not used to exercising
  • Bicycle riding is not recommended, as center of gravity changes - increase risk of falls
conventional prenatal care
Conventional Prenatal Care
  • First visit usually ~week 6-10
    • Medical history and full physical exam
    • Ultrasound
    • Labwork: CBC, UA, vaginal culture, STI tests, blood type, Rh factor, metabolic panel
  • Routine care - monthly visits until wk 28
    • Lab results, vital signs, fetal heart rate
    • Later: fundal height measurement
  • Visits every 2 weeks until week 36
    • Stay current with any changes in vital signs
    • Check for group B strep with vaginal culture
  • Weekly visits until delivery
  • Often done at:
      • 10 wks: determine if fetus is living and due date
      • 20 wks: check anatomy and for structural defects
      • Week 32-34: assess fetal size, position and well-being
high risk pregnancy
High Risk Pregnancy
  • Defined as any of the following:
    • Maternal age <15 or >35
    • Maternal weight <100lbs pre-preg or obese
    • Maternal height <5’
    • History of complications with previous pregnancies (including stillbirth, fetal loss, preterm labor and/or delivery, small-for-gestational age baby, large baby, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia)
    • More than 5 previous pregnancies, even if normal
    • Bleeding during the third trimester
    • Abnormalities of the reproductive tract, including uterine fibroids
high risk pregnancy continued
High Risk Pregnancy continued
  • Defined as any of the following:
    • Rh incompatibility
    • Pre or post-term delivery (<37 or >42 wks)
    • Multiples
    • Hypertension
    • Gestational diabetes
    • Infection of vagina, cervix, or kidneys
    • Fever
    • Acute surgical emergency (appendicitis, etc.)
    • Chronic illness (sickle cell anemia, AIDS, etc.)
  • High-Risk status necessitates delivery care from highly trained specialists
rh incompatibility
Rh Incompatibility
  • In women with Rh neg blood types
  • Occurs only if baby in womb has Rh positive blood type (father must have Rh pos blood for this to be genetically possible)
  • Danger lies in exposure to second Rh pos fetus - mother’s immune system may develop antibodies to fetal blood with first exposure and attack blood of second fetus
  • Treatment is Rh immune globulin injection (Rhogam shot) in 7th month of gestation and within 72 hours of delivery
avoid during pregnancy
Avoid During Pregnancy

Teratogens - some medications, alcohol, solvents, chemicals

  • Alcohol
  • Androgens and testosterone
  • ACE inhibitors
  • Coumarin
  • Carbamazepine
  • Anti-folates (methotrexate)
  • Cocaine
  • DES (no longer available in U.S.)
avoid during pregnancy continued
Avoid During Pregnancycontinued
  • Lead, Lithium, Mercury
  • Phenytoin
  • Streptomycin, kanamycin
  • Tetracyline
  • Thalidomide
  • Trimethadione, paramethadione
  • Valproic acid
  • Vitamin A in high doses
teratogen classification
Teratogen Classification
  • Weigh risk vs benefit case-by-case
      • Controlled studies in humans have demonstrated no fetal risks. There are few category A drugs. Examples include prenatal vitamins, but not massive dosages of vitamins.
      • Animal studies indicate no fetal risks, but there are no human studies; or adverse effects have been demonstrated in animals, but not in well-controlled human studies.
teratogen classification continued
Teratogen Classification continued
    • There are either no adequate studies, either animal or human, or there are adverse fetal effects in animal studies but no available human data. Many medications pregnant women use fall into this category.
    • There is evidence of fetal risk, but benefits are thought to outweigh the risks.
    • Proven fetal risks clearly outweigh any benefit.
      • Accutane
common complaints during pregnancy
Common Complaints During Pregnancy

(The following slides list common symptoms experienced during pregnancy, along with conditions that must be ruled out, and recommendations for treatment and prevention)

common complaints during pregnancy1
Common Complaints During Pregnancy
  • Fatigue: need to rule out anemia
    • TCM ddx?
  • Drowsiness
    • Due to increase in progesterone, worst in 1st trimester
    • Be careful driving!
    • Take naps (also helps nausea)
    • Remind her it is not forever
    • Make sure diet and iron levels ok, if so, don’t fight urge to rest
common complaints
Common Complaints
  • Mask of pregnancy: chloasma
    • Temporary increased pigmentation due to hormone changes
    • Most common in women with poor diet, liver not processing hormones well
    • More common in multips
common complaints1
Common Complaints
  • Rashes
    • Increased metabolism, sweating, flesh leads to increased skin/skin contact
    • Increased sensitivity to allergens
  • Pruritis
    • Hormones or increased vascularization
    • Can be early sign of PIH (dt decreased Kd function)
    • Skin stretching
    • Oatmeal bath, adequate dietary oils and fats
common complaints2
Common Complaints
  • Blood sugar imbalance
    • Aggravated by fetal competition for blood glucose, hormone fluctuation
    • Frequent small meals, increase protein (60-90g/d)
    • Avoid sugar (max 1 glass of juice or one fruit/ day)
  • Insomnia
    • Can’t get comfortable
    • Increased frequency of urination
    • Worry/ anxiety
    • Usually worse in 1st and 3rd trimesters
    • Counseling, warm baths, pillows behind back, between knees, under belly, wet sock treatment, exercise, decrease caffeine
common complaints nausea
Common Complaints - Nausea
  • Nausea/ vomiting
    • b-Hcg decreases stomach acid and appetite; blood sugar imbalance also contributes
    • Usually n/v decrease after 12-16 weeks
    • Nausea is a good sign: lower likelihood of SAB
      • No nausea mb sx not enough b-hcg being produced
    • Hyperemesis graviderum: severe n/v, need to be hospitalized for dehydration
common complaints nausea1
Common Complaints - Nausea
  • Suggestions:
    • eat small, frequent meals (every 3-4h), especially protein, even if not hungry
    • Protein snack before bed or during the night
    • Increase complex carbohydrates; have dry crackers at bedside, eat first thing in the morning
    • Consider eliminating food intolerances
    • Precede meals with 1Tbsp. Apple cider vinegar
    • Visualizations, acceptance of pregnancy, grounding, roots pulling down to earth
common complaints3
Common Complaints
  • Heartburn
    • Reflex from pressure on stomach; usually late in pregnancy but may be early on
    • Avoid lying down for 2h after eating; eat small, frequent meals slowly
    • Avoid fats, spicy foods, carbonated drinks
    • Chew gum to increase saliva, digestive enzymes
    • Warm teas but avoid mint (relaxes sphincter)
  • Pytalism (excess salivation)
    • Hormones of pregnancy, CHO deficiency
      • Eat CHO at every meal
common complaints4
Common Complaints
  • Pica
    • Desire for non-foods such as dirt, paint chips
    • Generally a sign of protein or calcium deficiency– need to improve diet
  • Constipation
    • Progesterone relaxes smooth muscle, decreases gut motility; later in pregnancy uterine size crowds bowels
    • Avoid straining (hemorrhoids)
    • Increase fluids, fiber, prune juice (better if heated), exercise, decrease stress
common complaints5
Common Complaints
  • Diarrhea
    • Common; may alternate with constipation
    • Increase fiber
  • Flatulence
    • Due to decrease in gut motility, pressure on bowels
    • Chew food well, avoid offending foods, carbonation
    • Digestive enzymes, probiotics
common complaints6
Common Complaints
  • Nosebleeds/ bleeding gums
    • Increased vascularity, calcium deficiency
    • Ensure bleeding stops within normal time; if any doubts, check platelets, pro-thrombin time
  • Abdominal Pain
    • Need to rule out: placental abruption, uterine infection, ectopic PG, Kd infection, premature labor, ruptured ovarian cyst
    • Round ligament pains, braxton-hicks contractions, baby kicking
  • Shortness of breath
    • Anemia, mechanical pressure
common complaints7
Common Complaints
  • Heart palpitations
    • Increased blood volume and pressure increases work load on heart
    • Aggravated by increased weight, pressure of uterus on diaphragm
    • Anemia
    • Rule out thyroid (esp. hyperthyroid)
    • Consider referral to cardiologist
  • Breast tenderness
    • Well-fitting bra, avoid underwire (blocks milk ducts)
    • Proper vitamin E intake
common complaints8
Common Complaints
  • Hemorrhoids
    • Increased laxity of veins, increased pressure on pelvic venous system and lymphatics
    • Constipation causing straining, increasing pressure
  • Varicose veins
    • Same etiology as hemorrhoids; often a genetic component, more common in multiparous women
    • Common locations along leg, behind knee
    • Need to monitor for thrombophlebitis
    • Keep legs elevated above heart 15min of every 4h
    • Decrease length of time spent standing
common complaints9
Common Complaints
  • Edema
    • Increased uterine size leads to slow venous return
    • Increased permeability and blood volume pushes fluid out into interstitial space
    • Need to rule out PIH, esp. with facial edema
      • Swelling in ankles at end of day, esp. after standing; may want to remove rings on fingers (normal)
    • Rest at least 15min/4hours
    • Check nutrition: proper protein, salt, water intake
common complaints10
Common Complaints
  • Low back pain
    • Relaxin softens SI joints, pulls on lumbar musculature, puts pressure on nerves; causes joints to be hyper-mobile
    • Change in body weight and its distribution changes posture
    • Larger uterus increases lumbar lordosis
    • Wear sensible shoes, avoid heavy lifting (>25#)
    • Prenatal exercises: pelvic rocks, knee to chest on waking, walking, swimming, check posture
    • Don’t start new sports during pregnancy
common complaints11
Common Complaints
  • Leg cramps
    • Relative buildup of lactic acid, Relative calcium deficiency, Decreased circulation in legs
    • Stretch legs, massage during cramping
    • Calcium, magnesium
  • Headache
    • In addition to all non-PG related etiologies, increase in b-hcg, blood volume changes, anemia, hypogycemia, calcium deficiency, PIH
    • Avoid aspirin, ibuprofen (decrease platelets)
    • Hot foot back with cold compress on neck
common complaints12
Common Complaints
  • Syncope/dizziness
    • Increase vagal response to position change, increased demand on heart, anemia, increased blood volume, hypoglycemia
    • Get up slowly, careful with hot baths, treat cause
  • Stretch marks
    • Approx. half genetic, other half due to excess weight, poor tissue support
    • 50% women get them; of these 50% go away postpartum
    • Exercise to improve muscle tone
    • Vitamin E, shea butter
common complaints13
Common Complaints
  • Hydrorrhea gravidarium:
      • Normal, profuse watery discharge, white or clear, no itch
      • Can be confused with water breaking (but won’t be alkaline like amniotic fluid)
  • Yeast infection
      • Increase in estrogen, change in pH
      • Cotton underwear, good hygiene, low sugar
  • Trichomonas vaginal infection
      • Should not be treated until postpartum
      • Flagyl contraindicated during pregnancy
  • Bacterial vaginosis
      • Cleocin antibiotic cream vaginally ok during PG
key concepts
Key Concepts
  • Fertile window is days 11-16 of cycle
  • Gestational age begins at LMP
  • Normal pregnancy length is 40 weeks
  • Proper folate levels nec before conception
  • Focus on good nutrition, not weight gain
  • What is Rh incompatibility? Who is at risk?
  • There are MANY changes during pregnancy

Know which are normal, which need investigation